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Urban Morphology

~The layout of the city, its physical form and structure.

Urban

~A term we use to describe the buildup of the central city and the suburban realm---the city and the surrounding environs connected to the city.

Agricultural Surplus

~Agricultural production in excess of that which the producer needs for his or her own sustenance and that of his or her family and which is then sold for consumption of others.

Social Stratification

~The differentiation of society into classes based on wealth, power, production, and prestige.

Leadership Class

~Group of decision-makers and organizers in early cities who controlled the resources and often the lives, of others.

First Urban Revolution

The innovation of the city, which occurred independently in five separate hearths.

What are the five hearths of urbanization?

1. Mesopotamia (Fertile Crescent)
2. Nile River Valley
3. Indus River Valley
4. Huang He and Wei River Valleys
5. Mesoamerica

Acropolis

~Literally "high point of the city." The upper fortified part of an ancient Greek city, usually devoted to religious purposes.

Agora

~In ancient Greece, public spaces where citizens debated, lectured, judged each other, planned military campaigns, socialized, and traded.

Middle Ages

~After the Roman Empire fell in 495, Europe entered an era known as the Middle Ages, which spans from about 500 to 1300. During the first two-thirds of this period in Europe, little urban growth occurred, and in some parts of the continent, urbanism went into sharp decline. Growth that did occur occurred along the Silk Route between Europe and Asia.

Situation

~The external locational attributes of a place; a city's relative location or regional position with reference to other nonlocal places.

Site

~The internal physical attributes of a place, including its absolute location, its spatial character, and its physical setting.

Central Square

~Became focus of the city, fronted by royal, religious, public, and private buildings evincing wealth and prosperity, power, and influence.

After European exploration took off during the 1400's, ______________________.

After European exploration took off during the 1400's, the dominance of interior cities declined.

Second Urban Revolution

~Throughout the Second Urban Revolution, the primary determinant in the location of industrial cities was proximity to a power source.
~Example: For textile manufacturing, industrial cities had to be sited near fresh water sources to power the water loom.
~The diffusion of the railroad gave cities that were not near coal fields the chance to industrialize.
~In order for the Second Urban Revolution to occur, a Second Agricultural Revolution had to as well.

Trade Area

Adjacent to every town and city within which its influence is dominant.

Primate City

~A country's largest city.

Central Place Theory

~Theorist: Walter Christaller
~Christaller attempted to develop a model to predict how and where central places in the urban hierarchy would be functionally and spatially distributed.
~He assumed five things before developing the model:
1. The surface of the ideal region would be flat and have no physical barriers.
2. Soil fertility would be the same everywhere.
3. Population and purchasing power would be evenly distributed.
4. The region would have a uniform transportation network to permit direct travel from each settlement to the other.
5. From any given place, a good or service could be sold in all directions out to a certain distance.
~Christaller chose perfectly fitted hexagonal regions as the shape of each trade area rather than a circular shape.
~Not all of his assumptions were met in reality. Physical barriers, uneven resource distributions, and other factors all modify Christaller's "hexagonal hinterlands".

Central Place

Any point or place in the urban hierarchy, such as a town or city, having a certain economic reach or hinterland.

Sun Belt Phenomenon

The movement of millions of Americans from and northeastern United States to the south and southwest regions (Sun Belt) of the U.S.

Zone

Area of a city with a relatively uniform land use (ex. Residential zone)

Functional Zonation

The division of a city into different regions or zones for certain purposes or functions (housing or manufacturing).

Central Business District

~The downtown heart of a central city.
~Marked by high land values, a concentration of business and commerce, and the clustering of the tallest buildings.

Central City

~The urban area that is not suburban.
~Surrounded by suburbs.

Suburb

A subsidiary urban area surrounding and connected to the central city.

Suburbanization

Movement of upper and middle-class people from urban core areas to the surrounding outskirts to escape pollution as well as deteriorating social conditions.

Edge Cities

~A term used to describe the shifting focus of urbanization in the United States away from the CBD (Central Business District) toward new loci of economic activity at the urban fringe.
~Located near highway.
~Characterized by extensive amounts of office and retail space, few residential areas, and modern buildings (less than 30 years old). ~Example: Irvine, California and Tyson's Corner Virginia.

Urban Realm

~Each realm is a separate economic, social, and political entity that is linked together to form the larger metropolitan framework.

Disamenity Sector

~The very poorest parts of cities that in extreme cases are not even connected to regular city services and are controlled by gangs or drug lords.

Concentric Zone Model

~Theorist: Ernst Burgess (1920's)
~There are 5 zones within the boundaries of a city.
~CBD (Central Business District) at city's core.
~CBD surrounded by residential zones radiating out from the core (transition zone between CBD and residential zones)

Sector Model

~Theorist: Homer Hoyt (1930's)
~City is separated into 7 distinct zones.
CBD at core
~Focus on residential patterns in the city. (High-rent residential located near education and recreation and furthest away from industrial and transportation zones) (Intermediate rent residential in between low-rent residential and high-rent residential) (Low-rent residential closest to industrial and transportation)
~Hoyt: City grows outwards from the CBD, creating pie-shaped zones.

Multiple Nuclei Model

~Theorists: Chauncey Harris & Edward Ullman. (1940's)
~CBD (Central Business District) is losing its dominant position as the single nucleus of the urban area.
~Could tie in with the effect of post-war highway construction and the development of edge cities.
~Several of the zones have their own particular nuclei.

Urban Realms Model

~(1970's)
~Suburban areas around the central city.
~Effects of automobile/highway infrastructure developments.
~Rapid growth of outer city—became functionally independent of central city
~Emergence of new suburban downtowns
~Growth and development of edge cities
~Each realm is a separate and independent social, political, and economic entity

Latin American Model

~Theorists: Griffin-Ford
~CBD (Central Business District) and market (trade area) share center of city.
~City is surrounded by peripheral settlements.
~Market extends to highly gentrified area with offices/high-rent housing.
~Mall is an extension of CBD (Filled with high end shops/Consumer goods)
~Market extends to highly gentrified area with offices/high-rent housing
~Sectors of squatter settlements (disemenity zone) extends from CBD to outer ring. Controlled in many cases by drug dealers/gangs

Southeast Asian Model

~Theorist: T.G. McGee
~No CBD (Central Business District)
~All processes arise from port zone. (Port zone acts as center)
~Clusters of squatter settlements.
~Higher class residential zone is the furthest from the port.
~Governmental zone closest to port

Sub-Saharan African Model

~3 CBD zones: Market Zone/Colonial Zone/Traditional Zone
~Ethnic neighborhoods near the CBD zones
~Mining and manufacturing zones outside neighborhood rings (zones)
~

Order on the urban hierarchy

1. City
2. Town
3. Hamlet
4. Village

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