Praxis 2 Social Studies (0081) Government / Civics / Political Science

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Praxis 2 Social Studies, Civics, Government, Political Science

Marbury vs. Madison

Case in which the supreme court first asserted the power of Judicial review in finding that the congressional statue expanding the Court's original jurisdiction was unconstitutional

McCulloch vs. Maryland

The state of Maryland taxed banknotes produced by the Bank of the United States, claiming that the Bank was unconstitutional. Using implied powers, Marshall countered that the Bank was constitutional and ruled that Maryland was forbidden from taxing the Bank.

Brown vs. Board of Education

Decision saying, segregation in SCHOOLS is a violation of the 14th amendment, 1954, stated that it was unconstitutional to maintain separate black and white schools, overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (1896). Ruled that segregated schools are not acceptable because of the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.

Miranda vs. Arizona

Required officers to inform persons of their constitutional rights when conducting an interrogation, The accused must be notified of their rights before being questioned by the police.

Judicial Branch

The branch of the United States government responsible for the administration of justice, the division of the federal government that is made up of the national courts; interprets laws, punishes criminals, and settles disputes between states

Executive Branch

The division of the federal government that includes the president and the administrative departments; enforces the nation's laws.

Legislative Branch

The branch of the United States government that has the power to create the laws. There are two houses in it. One is the Senators. There are two senators per state. There is also a House of represenitives. The amount of people per state depends on how big the population is.

Bicameralism

A legislative body where power is shared by two separate chambers so that neither can act without the agreement of the other.

Judicial Activism

An interpretation of the U.S. constitution holding that the spirit of the times and the needs of the nation can legitimately influence judicial decisions (particularly decisions of the Supreme Court)

Judicial Restraint

Holds that the Court should avoid taking the initiative on social & political questions, operation strictly w/n the limits of the Constitution

Appeals Process

The process for seeking protection from the court for violations of constitutional protections.

Electoral College

The group of persons chosen in each state and the District of Columbia every four years who make a formal selection of the President and Vice President

Unitary System

A government that gives all key powers to the national or central government

Federal System

A government that divides the powers of government between the national government and state or provincial governments

Parliamentary System

A system of government in which the legislature selects the prime minister or president, a system of government in which both executive and legislative functions reside in an elected assembly. The head of the government must be a current member of the legislature.

Mixed System

An economic system that includes both private ownership of property and government control (or regulation) of some services and industries

Democracy

The political orientation of those who favor government by the people or by their elected representatives

Autocracy

A system of government in which the power to rule is in the hands of a single individual

Theocracy

A political unit governed by a deity (or by officials thought to be divinely guided)

Proportional Representation

An election system in which each party running receives the proportion of legislative seats corresponding to its proportion of the vote.

Plurality system

An electoral system in which the winner is the person who gets the most votes, even if he or she does not receive a majority; used in almost all American elections

Multilateralism

A foreign policy that encourages the involvement of several nation-states in coordinated action, usually in relation to a common adversary, with terms and conditions usually specified in a multicountry treaty, such as NATO

Liberalism

A political or social philosophy advocating the freedom of the individual, parliamentary systems of government, nonviolent modification of political, social, or economic institutions to assure unrestricted development in all spheres of human endeavor, and governmental guarantees of individual rights and civil liberties.

Conservatism

A political or theological orientation advocating the preservation of the best in society and opposing radical changes, a belief that limited government ensures order, competitive governments, and personal opportunity.

Socialism

A political theory advocating state ownership of industry. A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.

Nationalism

Love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it, the doctrine that nations should act independently (rather than collectively) to attain their goals, the aspiration for national independence felt by people under foreign domination.

Communist Manifesto

This is the 1848 book written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels which urges an uprising by workers to seize control of the factors of production from the upper and middle classes.

Proletarian

A member of the working class (not necessarily employed)

Bourgeoisie

The middle class, including merchants, industrialists, and professional people.

Fascism

A political theory advocating an authoritarian hierarchical government (as opposed to democracy or liberalism), a political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition.

Capitalism

An economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, esp. as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth.

Libertarianism

An ideology that cherishes individual liberty and insists on minimal government, promoting a free market economy, a noninterventionist foreign policy, and an absence of regulation in moral, economic, and social life.

John Locke

Wrote Two Treatises on Government as justification of Glorious Revolution and end of absolutism in England. He argued that man is born good and has rights to life, liberty, and property. To protect these rights, people enter social contract to create government with limited powers.

Two Treatises of Government

Is a refutation of the divine rights of kings and the absolutist theory of government. A book written by John Locke which stated details about natural rights and that people were born with and entitled to life, liberty, and property.

Thomas Hobbes

English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679), wrote "Leviathan" and believed people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish; he also believed only a powerful governemnt could keep an orderly society.

Leviathan

Written by English philosopher Thomas Hobbes, maintained that sovereignty is ultimately derived from the people, who transfer it to the monarchy by implicit contract.

Adam Smith

Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790),he wrote the Wealth of Nations and designed modern Capitalism.

Wealth of Nations

This is the 18th century book written by Scottish economist Adam Smith in which he spells out the first modern account of free market economies.

V.I. Lenin

Led the communist revolution, was the leader of the Bolsheviks, ruled Russia (wrote What Is to Be Done?)

What Is to Be Done

Lenin's pamphlet in 20th century Russia that argued for the vanguard of the revolution.

Legitimacy

Involves the acceptance of the decisions of government officials by the public on the grounds that the leaders' acquisition and exercise of power has been in accordance with the society's generally accepted procedures and political values. Ex/ A citizen views the government as legitimate, a law may be unpopular, but it will still garner popular acceptance.

Interest Groups

Are aggregates of individuals based on a limited range of shared concerns. They promote their policy agenda, in large part by providing legislators and policy makers with specialized information in issues.

Third Party Candidate

Sometimes force one or both of the two dominant parties to shift their political platforms.

The President

Formal responsibilities include acting as chief executive and commander in chief of the armed forces, as well as the ability to make treaties. In addition, has the power to grant pardons for offenses against the United States.

Congress

Has the power to ratify treaties and delcare war, and the powere to make laws.

Filibuster

A tactic for delaying or obstructing legislation by making long speeches. Hold up action on a bill by refusing to yield the floor, gives individual senators a degree of influence over legislation that is not available to the members of the House, whose debate is governed by a more restrictive set of rules.

Legislative Oversight

Congress' monitoring of the bureaucracy and its administration of policy, performed mainly through hearings, the power of Congress to oversee how laws are carried out.

Federal Block Grants

Are given to state governments w/regulations that they be used for specific purposes, Block grants give the states more discretion in that they provide federal funds for general areas of use but allow the states to implement the specifics of the programs.

Federal Categorial Grants

Grants that earmark the funds for specific uses and oten require that the states meet a number of other requirements to receive and used these funds.

Isolationism

Is a policy of national isolation from world affairs by generally abstaining from alliances and other types of international political relations.

Imperialism

A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically, a policy of extending your rule over foreign countries.

Internationalism

The doctrine that nations should cooperate because their common interests are more important than their differences.

Interventionism

A strand of American foreign policy that was visible by the end of the 19th century; it included "gunboat diplomacy" and other forms of military involvement by the United States in various parts of the world.

Direct Democracy

A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives.

Niccolo Machiavelli

Was an Italian philosopher/writer, and is considered one of the main founders of modern political science. Wrote,The Prince, which examines the acquisition, perpetuation, and use of political power in the western world. He justified rule by force.

Realism

Also known as political realism, is a school of international relations that prioritizes national interest and security over ideology, moral concerns and social reconstructions. This term is often synonymous with power politics.

Idealism

Is the philosophical theory which maintains that the ultimate nature of reality is based on the mind or ideas.

Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)

A doctrine of military strategy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by two opposing sides would effectively result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender, if either US or the USSR was hit with a nuclear weapons they would respond with the same

Impeachment

The political equivalent of an indictment in criminal law, prescribed by the Constitution. The House of Representatives may do this to the president by a majority vote for "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.", Charges against a president approved by a majority of the House of Representatives.

Investiture

A ceremony in which a person formally receives the authority and symbols of an office.

Recall Referendum

Is a procedure that allows citizens to remove and replace a public official before the end of a term of office. It is a political device while impeachment is a legal process.

Vote of no Confidence

A process in a parliamentary system where a majority of parliament members vote to remove the Prime Minister from office.

The Connecticut Compromise

Legislative branch would have two parts: 1. a House of Representatives with state representation based on population and 2. a Senate, with two members from each state.

Federal Courts

Deal with problems between states; they also handle cases that deal with the Constitution and the laws made by Congress, they lack enforcement powers.

Speaker of the House

An office mandated by the Constitution. The Speaker is chosen in practice by the majority party, has both formal and informal powers, and is second in line to succeed to the presidency should that office become vacant.

Senate Majority Leader

First-ranking party position, held by a distinguished senior member of the majority party in the Senate. The Senate majority leader schedules floor actions on bills, and helps guide the majority party's legislative program through the Senate.

Political Party Leadership

In each house, they decide the committee assignments of members of Congress.

United States Senator

Elected to the Legisilative Branch of the U.S. government for a term on 6 years to represent a state; 2 per state, 100 total.

House Representative

Serves a 2 year term

Monroe Doctrine

A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.

Miranda Rule

The rule that police (when interrogating you after an arrest) are obliged to warn you that anything you say may be used as evidence and to read you your constitutional rights (the right to a lawyer and the right to remain silent until advised by a lawyer)

Exclusionary Rule

A rule that provides that otherwise admissible evidence cannot be used in a criminal trial if it was the result of illegal police conduct, improperly gathered evidence may not be introduced in a criminal trial.

Clear and Present Danger Test

Interpretation of the First Amendment that holds that the government cannot interfere with speech unless the speech presents a clear and present danger that it will lead to evil or illegal acts.

Thirteenth Amendment

The constitutional amendment ratified after the Civil War that forbade slavery and involuntary servitude, abolished slavery everywhere in the United States.

Fourteenth Amendment

A constitutional amendment giving full rights of citizenship to all people born or naturalized in the United States, except for American Indians.

Nineteenth Amendment

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex, granted women the right to vote in 1920.

U.S. Bipartism Campaign Reform Act of 2002

It banned "soft money" contributions to National Political Parties, regulates the financing of political campaigns.

Korematsu vs. United States

1944 Supreme Court case where the Supreme Court upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japaneese Americans. It was not until 1988 that Congress formally apologized and agreed to pay $20,000 to each survivor.

Bush vs. Gore

The court ruled that manual recounts of presidential ballots in the Nov. 2000 election could not proceed because inconsistent evaluation statdards in different counties violated the equal protection clause. In effect, the ruling meant Bush would win election.

United States vs. Nixon

The 1974 case in which the Supreme Court unanimously held that the doctrine of exceutive privilege was implicit in the Constitution but could not be extended to protect documents relevant to criminal prosecutions. It limited the President's executive privilege.

The Federalist Papers

Series of newspaper articles written by John Hay, James Madison and Alexander Hamilton which enumerated arguments in favor of the Constitution and refuted the arguments of the anti-federalists

On Liberty

John Stuart Mill, essay, plead for the pratical and moral value inherent in safe guarding individual differences and popular opinion.

Common Sense

A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation.

Democracy in America

Written by Alexis de Tocqueville, French man who observed democracy in govt and society, book that discusses the advantages of democracy and consequences of the majority's unlimited power.

Conservative

A person who believes government power, particularly in the economy, should be limited in order to maximize individual freedom.

Liberal

A person who favors a political philosophy of progress and reform and the protection of civil liberties, a person who favors an economic theory of laissez-faire and self-regulating markets.

Libertarian

One who favors a free market economy and no governmental interference in personal liberties, strong support for civil and political liberties but reject government regulation of the economy.

Populist

A person who advocates democratic principles; A politician who advocates specific policies just because they are popular. A political party formed in 1891 mostly by farmers & members of labor unions who demanded government help with falling farm prices, regulation of railroad rates, and the free coinage of silver (more money to be put in circulation)

First Amendment

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

Second Amendment

A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.

Third Amendment

The government may not house soldiers in private homes without consent of the owner

Fourth Amendment

Protects Americans against unreasonable searches and seizures. No soldier, Gov agent, or police can search your home without a search warrant.

Fifth Amendment

The constitutional amendment designed to protect the rights of persons accused of crimes, including protection against double jeopardy, self-incrimination, and punishment without the due process of law.

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