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Cuse History 102 Study guide

Liberalism

political philosophy founded on equality for everyone

Isolationism

basically the oposite of what we have now, not getting in other peoples business

Total War

going to war with everything in a country, economically, politically, everything

Cold War

1947-1991 - war of ideologies not weapons

Suburbanization

growth of areas in the outskirts of cities, White Flight, whites all left cities

Baby Boom

1941-1989 - birthrate went up, signified overall good times and the growth of the country in all ways

Civil Rights Movement

1960s basically political movement for equal rights, civil disobedience was a major thing with the success of this movement

Sexual Revolution

1960s social movement that challenged tradition ways of thinking in terms of sexuality, legalization of abortion, Roe v. Wade, birth control pill, contraception normalization of premarital sex

Women's Liberation

feminist movement, series of campaigns that were against domestic violence, birth control, feminism stuff, equality etc., has gone through 3 waves

De-industrialization

a movement away from industrial economy, and toward suburban life and independent businesses

Reagan Revolution

1980-1988 reducing government programs, Reaganomics, huge tax cuts across the board, all about small independent businesses, national debt increased because taxes went down, hated commies, political realignment toward conservatism

The Welfare State

the government having a hand and helping everyone in many aspects of their lives

Fascism

nationalism, bringing the country together

The Bomb

Atomic Bomb, 1945, bombs were dropped on two Japanese cities, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, that basically ended the Pacific offensive of World War II, flexed the US military muscle

Communist insurgency

uprising by the Malayan Communist Party,

Domestic anti-communism

Red Scare, arresting communists, keeping them off the airwaves, stopping commie propaganda

segregation

blacks and whites did everything separately. was overturned eventually because separate but equal is inherently unequal, Plessy v. Ferguson was overturned

imperialism

A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, socially, and economically.

Great Depression

worldwide economic depression that began in 1929 with the New York stock market crash and continued in many areas until the outbreak of World War II

World War II

War fought from 1939 to 1945 between the Allies and the Axis, involving most countries in the world. The United States joined the Allies in 1941, helping them to victory with the dropping of the A Bomb

The Red Scare

a period of time in american history when the government went after "reds" (communists) and others with radical views

The New Frontier

Characterized by minimum wage hikes, modest increases in Social Security, and expanded military spending. Policy of JFK.

The Great Society

Social program that LBJ announced in 1965 which included war on poverty, civil rights and funding for education.

Malaise

Americans were feeling that the economy was stagnant or in depression under Jimmy Carter before Ronald Reagan took over.

1941

(Pearl Harbor)- This is the year that the US entered WWII after the attacks on Pearl Harbor

1945

(Hiroshima)- The year that Truman ended the war by dropping the bomb on Japan

1954

(Brown Decision)- Year that segregation in public schools ended in the US, ended separate but equal established by Plessy v. Ferguson

1963

(JFK Assassinated)- JFK killed by Lee Harvey Oswald, Johnson takes over office

1968

(MLK, RFK, Chicago)- Assassinations over protestors, MLK for Civil Rights, RFK for anti-war. The assassination of MLK resulted in riots in urban areas, and they were particularly bad in Chicago.

1972

(Watergate)- Arrest of five men breaking into the Democratic National Complex (Watergate complex) to get papers that showed that Nixon was exchanging money with countries that he shouldn't have. Led to his resignation and a distrust in government.

1980

(Reagan)- Reagan elected after an unpopular Jimmy Carter and starts a revolution

1989

(Berlin Wall Falls)- Separated West Berlin from surrounding East Germany and East Berlin. It was seen as a divide in ideologies and was also a sign of Eastern European suppression. Reagan urged Gorbachev to knock it down and he finally complied.

Korean War

The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea. 1950-1953

Vietnam War

Conflict pitting North Vietnam against the South Vietnamese government, aided after 1961 by the United States.

D-Day invasion

Allied invasion at Normandy, France on June 6th 1944. turning point in WWII. It was the largest amphibian operation ever attempted.

Guadalcanal

a battle in World War II in the Pacific (1942-1943) site of the US's first invasion of japanese-held territory. in august 1942, the japaense attacked the american forces with four savage attacks and were repulsed, with horrendous losses on both sides.

Hiroshima and Nagasaki

site of A Bomb droppings. Super messed up

Inchon Landing

The landing of UN troops, led by Douglas MacArthur, behind enemy lines at Inchon in Korea. In order to push back the North Korean troops. turning point in the Korean War 1950

Tet Offensive

surprise attack on Americans in Vietnam war, were not fighting on Vietnamese holiday of Tet, failed but was bad PR for Johnson, afterward Nam was a lost cause

Secret Bombings

1968 attacks on Cambodia and Lau, in Vietnam War, strike north vienamese military bases, initiated by Nixon, raised questions of Nixons actual motives

My Lai Massacre

1968, in which American troops had brutally massacred innocent women and children in the village of My Lai, also led to more opposition to the war.

Pearl Harbor

United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.

Crossing the 38th Parallel

Korean DMZ, buffer zone between North and South Korea. Established in 1953 by USA, Peoples Republic of China, North Korea

Dien Bien Phu

The place that the final battle took place that forced the French out of Vietnam 1954

Gulf of Tonkin

North Vietnam fires upon US ship, 2 days later ship reports that its under attack again and it forces Johnson to call for an airstrike against North Vietnam

Democrats

liberalism, hands on government, more taxes

Republicans

conservative, hand off government, less taxes

Communists

messed up people

Labor Movement

an organized attempt by workers to improve their status by united action especially via labor unions, FDR, AFL-CIO

NAACP

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to work for racial equality. Strived to end discrimination and segregation

Southern Christian Leadership Conference

founded by MLK Jr., to fight segregation. passive resistance stressed nonviolence and peaceful confrontation.

Student Non-Violent Coordination Committee

Played a major role in sit-ins and freedom rides as well as the 1963 March on Washington of the Civil Rights Movement

Moral Majority

Moral Majority was a political group made up of fundamentalist Christians. Although it did not accomplish much, it did show that Americans were starting to worry about the moral fabric of society.

Montgomery Bus Boycott

In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, MLK led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.

Sit-ins

protests by black college students, 1960-1961, who took seats at "whites only" lunch counters and refused to leave until served; in 1960 over 50,000 participated in sit-ins across the South. Their success prompted the formation of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee.

Freedom Rides

tested law that said there couldn't be segregation in interstate transportation, buses were attacked/burned

March on Washington

held in 1963 to show support for the Civil Rights Bill in Congress. Martin Luther King gave his famous "I have a dream..." speech. 250,000 people attended the rally. huge for civil rights

1968 Chicago Democratic Convention

significant event in presidential election of 1968; demonstrated the confusion and lack of unity among Democrats; outside, protests and police brutality

Stonewall Rebellion

1969, common for police to go into gay bars and look for violation of alc laws, went into Stonewall and basically led to a fight between police and gay bar peoples, start of gay liberation movement

Marshall Plan

US program to assist European countries after WWII, dispersed over $12B over the time it was used, offered to communist and non communist countries but only non communist countries accepted so it would stop spread of communist

Civil Rights Act

LBJ passed this in 1964. Prohibited discrimination of African Americans in employement, voting, or public accommodations. Also said there could be no discrimination against race, color, sex, religion, or national origin.

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.

Voting Rights Act

1965: a law passed that forbids any state to deny a citizen the right to vote on the basis of race color or sex.

Medicare

started in 1965, allowed for free universal healthcare for people once they reached 65, first big move for liberal economists

Brown v. Board of Ed

1954: Ruled that racially segregated schools violated the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment. Reversed the principle of "separate but equal" established in Plessy v Ferguson

Griswold v. CT

Case fighting illegalization of birth control, original law over turned, found constitutional right to married couples, sex revolution in 1960s

Roe v. Wade

(1973) legalized abortion on the basis of a woman's right to privacy, win for the feminist movement

Potsdam Conference

The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdamn, outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.

Yalta Conference

1945 - FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War

Paris Peace Treaty

signed in January 1973; ends US involvement in Vietnam- US promised to remove troops from South Vietnam if the North Koreans halted military operations and opened up to negotiations

Franklin Roosevelt

32nd President of the United States, elected four times; instituted New Deal to counter the great depression and led country during World War II (1882-1945)

Harry Truman

took over after FDR, dropped Atom Bombs

Dwight Eisenhower

United States general who supervised the invasion of Normandy (D-Day) and the defeat of Nazi Germany, 34th President of the United States

Douglas McArthur

General in the Gulf of Tonkin issue, led in Korea

J. Edgar Hoover

1st head of FBI

Joseph McCarthy

United States politician who unscrupulously accused many citizens of being Communists

John Kennedy

Assassinated in 1963, Bay of Pigs, 1st Catholic president, 1st Tv debate

Lyndon Johnson

took over for JFK, president during part of Cold War, Vietnam War, people hated him sometimes, Great Society

Robert Kennedy

He ran for President in 1968; stirred a response from workers, African Americans, Hispanics, and younger Americans; would have captured Democratic nomination but was assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan after victory speech during the California primary in June 1968.

Hubert Humphrey

LBJ's vice president and McCarthy's opposition in 1968 primary after LBJ stepped down. won nomination; not presidency. Nixon won

George Wallace

ran for presidency, hated nigs, racist bastard

Eugene McCarthy

ran against Nixon in 1968

Richard Daley

mayor of Chicago who ordered the police to protect the protesters in the Chicago Movement

George McGovern

Democrat running against Nixon on antiwar platform in 1972 election

Richard Nixon

won 1968 election and 1972 election, watergate scandal, resigned in 1974, escalated Nam war effort

Gerald Ford

president 1974-77, Nixon's Vice president, appointed vice president by Nixon: became president after Nixon resigned

Jimmy Carter

President who stressed human rights. Because of the Soviet war in Afghanistan, he enacted an embargo on grain shipments to USSR and boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow. 1977

Ronald Reagan

Reaganomics, oldest president, former actor, lower taxes, stress independent business

George H. W. Bush

VP under Reagan, increased taxes, republican, former director of CIA, oil company founder/owner, foreign policy (panama, gulf war), raised taxes eventhough said he wouldnt, more moderate than his son, NAFTA negotiation

Bill Clinton

42nd President advocated economic and healthcare reform; second president to be impeached; scandal with White House intern Monica Lewinsky and Whitewater business faults

Paul Roberson

commie actor

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg

Arrested in the Summer of 1950 and executed in 1953, they were convicted of conspiring to commit espionage by passing plans for the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.

Rosa Parks

Refused to give up her seat to a white passenger. After she was jailed, the Montgomery bus boycott was organized.

Martin Luther King Jr.

led civil rights movement, gave I have a dream speech at March on Washington, civil disobedience, non-violent protest, shot in the head and died

Daniel Ellsberg

Former Pentagon official who "leaked" the Pentagon Papers

Betty Friedan

Author of Feminine Mystique which is women in 50s and looked at their lives as housewives, when the housewives feel that their lives are unfulfilling, credited with starting the second wave feminism

Jerry Falwell

televangelist who led the Moral Majority

Ralph Nadar

leader of the consumer movement... lawyer who investigated car saftey, meatpacking, and other industries

Rachel Carson

one of the first people to realize the global dangers of pesticide abuse (DDT). Wrote Silent Spring.

Benito Mussolini

commie leader of Italy in WWII

Adolph Hitler

Nazi

Emperor Hirohito

emperor of Japan during WWII. his people viewed him as a god

Winston Churchill

leader of England in WWII and through much of the Cold War

Josef Stalin

commie leader of Soviet Russia, during WWII and Cold War

Mao Tse-tung

Commie leader of China, made China a single party socialist state

Ho Chi Minh

communist leader of North Vietnam;

Ngo Dinh Diem

South Vietnamese president that was catholic and strongly opposed communism. His poor leadership and corrupt government spelled doom

Mikhail Gorbachev

leader of Germany that tore down that wall!!!!!!

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