1941-1989 - birthrate went up, signified overall good times and the growth of the country in all ways
Civil Rights Movement
1960s basically political movement for equal rights, civil disobedience was a major thing with the success of this movement
1960s social movement that challenged tradition ways of thinking in terms of sexuality, legalization of abortion, Roe v. Wade, birth control pill, contraception normalization of premarital sex
feminist movement, series of campaigns that were against domestic violence, birth control, feminism stuff, equality etc., has gone through 3 waves
a movement away from industrial economy, and toward suburban life and independent businesses
1980-1988 reducing government programs, Reaganomics, huge tax cuts across the board, all about small independent businesses, national debt increased because taxes went down, hated commies, political realignment toward conservatism
Atomic Bomb, 1945, bombs were dropped on two Japanese cities, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, that basically ended the Pacific offensive of World War II, flexed the US military muscle
Red Scare, arresting communists, keeping them off the airwaves, stopping commie propaganda
blacks and whites did everything separately. was overturned eventually because separate but equal is inherently unequal, Plessy v. Ferguson was overturned
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, socially, and economically.
worldwide economic depression that began in 1929 with the New York stock market crash and continued in many areas until the outbreak of World War II
World War II
War fought from 1939 to 1945 between the Allies and the Axis, involving most countries in the world. The United States joined the Allies in 1941, helping them to victory with the dropping of the A Bomb
The Red Scare
a period of time in american history when the government went after "reds" (communists) and others with radical views
The New Frontier
Characterized by minimum wage hikes, modest increases in Social Security, and expanded military spending. Policy of JFK.
The Great Society
Social program that LBJ announced in 1965 which included war on poverty, civil rights and funding for education.
Americans were feeling that the economy was stagnant or in depression under Jimmy Carter before Ronald Reagan took over.
(Brown Decision)- Year that segregation in public schools ended in the US, ended separate but equal established by Plessy v. Ferguson
(MLK, RFK, Chicago)- Assassinations over protestors, MLK for Civil Rights, RFK for anti-war. The assassination of MLK resulted in riots in urban areas, and they were particularly bad in Chicago.
(Watergate)- Arrest of five men breaking into the Democratic National Complex (Watergate complex) to get papers that showed that Nixon was exchanging money with countries that he shouldn't have. Led to his resignation and a distrust in government.
(Berlin Wall Falls)- Separated West Berlin from surrounding East Germany and East Berlin. It was seen as a divide in ideologies and was also a sign of Eastern European suppression. Reagan urged Gorbachev to knock it down and he finally complied.
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea. 1950-1953
Conflict pitting North Vietnam against the South Vietnamese government, aided after 1961 by the United States.
Allied invasion at Normandy, France on June 6th 1944. turning point in WWII. It was the largest amphibian operation ever attempted.
a battle in World War II in the Pacific (1942-1943) site of the US's first invasion of japanese-held territory. in august 1942, the japaense attacked the american forces with four savage attacks and were repulsed, with horrendous losses on both sides.
The landing of UN troops, led by Douglas MacArthur, behind enemy lines at Inchon in Korea. In order to push back the North Korean troops. turning point in the Korean War 1950
surprise attack on Americans in Vietnam war, were not fighting on Vietnamese holiday of Tet, failed but was bad PR for Johnson, afterward Nam was a lost cause
1968 attacks on Cambodia and Lau, in Vietnam War, strike north vienamese military bases, initiated by Nixon, raised questions of Nixons actual motives
My Lai Massacre
1968, in which American troops had brutally massacred innocent women and children in the village of My Lai, also led to more opposition to the war.
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
Crossing the 38th Parallel
Korean DMZ, buffer zone between North and South Korea. Established in 1953 by USA, Peoples Republic of China, North Korea
Gulf of Tonkin
North Vietnam fires upon US ship, 2 days later ship reports that its under attack again and it forces Johnson to call for an airstrike against North Vietnam
an organized attempt by workers to improve their status by united action especially via labor unions, FDR, AFL-CIO
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to work for racial equality. Strived to end discrimination and segregation
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
founded by MLK Jr., to fight segregation. passive resistance stressed nonviolence and peaceful confrontation.
Student Non-Violent Coordination Committee
Played a major role in sit-ins and freedom rides as well as the 1963 March on Washington of the Civil Rights Movement
Moral Majority was a political group made up of fundamentalist Christians. Although it did not accomplish much, it did show that Americans were starting to worry about the moral fabric of society.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, MLK led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
protests by black college students, 1960-1961, who took seats at "whites only" lunch counters and refused to leave until served; in 1960 over 50,000 participated in sit-ins across the South. Their success prompted the formation of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee.
tested law that said there couldn't be segregation in interstate transportation, buses were attacked/burned
March on Washington
held in 1963 to show support for the Civil Rights Bill in Congress. Martin Luther King gave his famous "I have a dream..." speech. 250,000 people attended the rally. huge for civil rights
1968 Chicago Democratic Convention
significant event in presidential election of 1968; demonstrated the confusion and lack of unity among Democrats; outside, protests and police brutality
1969, common for police to go into gay bars and look for violation of alc laws, went into Stonewall and basically led to a fight between police and gay bar peoples, start of gay liberation movement
US program to assist European countries after WWII, dispersed over $12B over the time it was used, offered to communist and non communist countries but only non communist countries accepted so it would stop spread of communist
Civil Rights Act
LBJ passed this in 1964. Prohibited discrimination of African Americans in employement, voting, or public accommodations. Also said there could be no discrimination against race, color, sex, religion, or national origin.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.
Voting Rights Act
1965: a law passed that forbids any state to deny a citizen the right to vote on the basis of race color or sex.
started in 1965, allowed for free universal healthcare for people once they reached 65, first big move for liberal economists
Brown v. Board of Ed
1954: Ruled that racially segregated schools violated the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment. Reversed the principle of "separate but equal" established in Plessy v Ferguson
Griswold v. CT
Case fighting illegalization of birth control, original law over turned, found constitutional right to married couples, sex revolution in 1960s
Roe v. Wade
(1973) legalized abortion on the basis of a woman's right to privacy, win for the feminist movement
The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdamn, outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.
1945 - FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
Paris Peace Treaty
signed in January 1973; ends US involvement in Vietnam- US promised to remove troops from South Vietnam if the North Koreans halted military operations and opened up to negotiations
32nd President of the United States, elected four times; instituted New Deal to counter the great depression and led country during World War II (1882-1945)
United States general who supervised the invasion of Normandy (D-Day) and the defeat of Nazi Germany, 34th President of the United States
United States politician who unscrupulously accused many citizens of being Communists
took over for JFK, president during part of Cold War, Vietnam War, people hated him sometimes, Great Society
He ran for President in 1968; stirred a response from workers, African Americans, Hispanics, and younger Americans; would have captured Democratic nomination but was assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan after victory speech during the California primary in June 1968.
LBJ's vice president and McCarthy's opposition in 1968 primary after LBJ stepped down. won nomination; not presidency. Nixon won
mayor of Chicago who ordered the police to protect the protesters in the Chicago Movement
won 1968 election and 1972 election, watergate scandal, resigned in 1974, escalated Nam war effort
president 1974-77, Nixon's Vice president, appointed vice president by Nixon: became president after Nixon resigned
President who stressed human rights. Because of the Soviet war in Afghanistan, he enacted an embargo on grain shipments to USSR and boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow. 1977
George H. W. Bush
VP under Reagan, increased taxes, republican, former director of CIA, oil company founder/owner, foreign policy (panama, gulf war), raised taxes eventhough said he wouldnt, more moderate than his son, NAFTA negotiation
42nd President advocated economic and healthcare reform; second president to be impeached; scandal with White House intern Monica Lewinsky and Whitewater business faults
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Arrested in the Summer of 1950 and executed in 1953, they were convicted of conspiring to commit espionage by passing plans for the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.
Refused to give up her seat to a white passenger. After she was jailed, the Montgomery bus boycott was organized.
Martin Luther King Jr.
led civil rights movement, gave I have a dream speech at March on Washington, civil disobedience, non-violent protest, shot in the head and died
Author of Feminine Mystique which is women in 50s and looked at their lives as housewives, when the housewives feel that their lives are unfulfilling, credited with starting the second wave feminism
leader of the consumer movement... lawyer who investigated car saftey, meatpacking, and other industries
one of the first people to realize the global dangers of pesticide abuse (DDT). Wrote Silent Spring.
Ngo Dinh Diem
South Vietnamese president that was catholic and strongly opposed communism. His poor leadership and corrupt government spelled doom