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Exam II answers

autonomy versus shame and doubt stage

A toddler in Freud's anal stage would also be at Erikson's:

Guilt

Failure to develop self rule over one's own actions is most closely identified with Erikson's concept of _________.

Symbolic Thought

The Piaget, the difference between cognition in infancy and cognition in the preschool years is:

Operationally

Piaget believed that between the ages of 2 and 6, it is difficult for the children to think:

Be unable to think backwards from a conclusion to the beginning

The characteristics of irreversibility refers to the pre-operational child's tendency to:

social activities guided by others

Wheras Piaget saw cognitive development as a result of individual discovery, Vgotsky attributed it to:

A child can master some tasks with the help of others.

One of Vgotsky's most famous concepts was the zone of proximal development, which asserts that:

learns some words after a single exposure to them

Because of "fast mapping" a preschooler:

Psychology should focus more on the process than on the static results of development, and the individual is shaped and formed by internalizing aspects of the culture and society.

What was Vgotsky's perspective on psychology?

Theory of mind

A person's understanding of what they think others are thinking is referred to as:

Assume that language always follow the rules

Over-regulation occurs because children

Eagerly takes on new tasks

In Erikson's third Psychosocial stage:

Sociodramatic

One child pretends to be the mother while the other pretends to be a baby who will not eat his dinner. Such play is called:

Amount of daycare in the first several years of life was positively correlated with how many behavioral problems kids had in kindergarten

The study on childcare we discussed in class (conducted by the national institute of health and human development early child care research network) found that:

Maternal sensitivity

The study on child care also found that most consistent and strongest predictor of child outcomes was:

is a longitudinal study, and was conducted at several locations across the U.S.

A strength of the child-care study is that it:

there is no independent, valid test for ADHD.

According the National Institute of Health, (ADHD testing)

Achievement

April is tested on her mastery of college chemistry. What kind of test is this?

are sometimes called "high functioning autistics"

Children with Asperger Syndrome:

Madeline immediately knows 8 x 9 = 72

What is the best example of automatization?

thinking about one's thinking processes

Metacognition refers to:

There is a positive correlation between socioeconomic status and the development of a child's vocabulary and grammar.

Research on language development over the course of the past 40 years suggests that : (socioeconomic status)

is either lost, discarded, or transferred to short term memory

All teh information in the sensory register:

20-30 seconds

Items in short term memory remain there for about______.

His driving has become automated

When learning to drive, Jim concentrated so much time on his driving that he didn't want anyone to talk to him. A year later, he can carry on a conversation with a passenger while driving safely. What has probably occured?

Logical

According to Piaget, the distinguishing characteristic of school aged children (age 7-11) is that they are:

Conservation

A child who understands that properties of objects remain the same despite changes in outward appearance has an understanding of:

rejected-withdrawn

Research shows that a child is most likely to be a victim of bullying if the child is:

describe s friend as very smart or funny

Compared to a 7-year-old, a 10-year-old would be more likely to: (in comparison of friends)

how competent in math their parents perceive them to be.

Research discussed in class on children's perception's of how good they are in the math shows that those perceptions are most strongly influenced by:

repression of psychosocial needs

According to Freud, 8 year old Sven will experience:

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