Biology final exam review

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T or F: The earliest known amphibian fossil is that of an extinct amphibian called Icthyostega

True

T or F: In most amphibians, fertilization takes place externally

True

T or F: Caecilians are tropical amphibians with four legs and a tail

False

T or F: Waterproof skin is a reptilian adaptation to life on land

True

T or F: In amphibians, reproductive cells and wastes exit the body through the cloacal opening

True

T or F: Frog eggs must be laid in a wet or moist environment

True

T or F: Some frog larvae undergo metamorphosis in the stomach of their mother

True

The word amphibian is derived from Greek words meaning: a) "Fishlike" b)"Froglike" c)"Double Life" d) "First lunged"

c) "Double life"

The earliest known land vertebrate a) was a coelacanth, b) was an amphibian, c) lacked bones in its legs, d) was now-extinct reptile

b) was an amphibian

In amphibians, gases are exchanged through lung breathing and through the a) heart, b) air bladder, c) lateral line system, d) skin

d) skin

Amphibians without tails are classifies in the order a) Apoda, b) Anura, c) Urodela, d) Hydrodela

b) Anura

Newts and salamanders are amphibians of the order a) Apoda, b) Anura, c) Urodela, d) Gymnophiona

c) Urodela

Amphibians that have slender bodies and no limbs are classified as a) anurans, b) caecilians, c) salamanders, d) newts

b) caecilians

Amphibians must have thin, moist skin a) to allow easier gas exchange, b) because thin, moist skin cannot be eaten by a predator, c) so that they can slip easily into tight places, d) to resist water loss

a) to allow easier gas exchange

Some type of skeletal support a) exists in all animals, whether they are aquatic or terrestrial, b) was necessary for animals to leave aquatic environments, c) is present primarily in land vertebrates, d) evolved first in reptiles

b) was necessary for animals to leave aquatic envirnments

Which of the following characteristics of the skeletons of frogs are adaptations for jumping? a) forelimbs attached to a pectoral girdle and hindlimbs attached to a pelvic girdle, b) fusion of bones of the hind limbs and of the vertebral column, c) cervical vertebrae, d) bony vertebral column

b) fusion of bones of the hind limbs and of the vertebral column

The amphibian heart a) pumps only deoxygenated blood, b) has four chambers, c) pumps only oxygenated blood, d) pumps both deoxygenated and oxygenated blood

d) pumps both deoxygenated and oxygenated blood

The amount of oxygen a lung can absorb depends primarily on a) its thickness, b) its position in the body of an animal, c) its internal surface area, d) the diameter of the bronchioles in the lung

c) its internal surface area

Frogs breathe by a) changing the volume and pressure in their chest cavity, b) allowing air currents they encounter as they move to inflate their lungs, c) changing the volume and pressure of air in their mouth, d) expanding and contracting the muscles of the rib cage

c) changing the volume and pressure of air in their mouth

Adult frogs, like other amphibians, are a) herbivores, b) omnivores, c) parasites, d) carnivores

d) carnivores

Which of the following senses is not more developed in amphibians than in bony fishes? a) lateral line system, b) vision, c) smell, d) hearing

a) lateral line system

Although adapted to land, toads must have access to a watery environment in order to a) obtain food and oxygen, b) excrete wastes, c) reproduce, d) all of the above

c) reproduce

Amphibians must reproduce in water or moist places because their eggs a) are fertilized externally, b) have a jelly-like coating that is freely permeable to water, c) will dry out if removed from moisture, d) all of the above

d) all of the above

The series of changes in the life cycle of a frog is called a) amniocentesis, b) metamorphosis, c) evolution, d) synapsis

b) metamorphosis

During metamorphosis in frogs, a) lungs replace gills, b) limbs develop, c) the tail disappears, d) all of the above

d) all of the above

Pulmonary veins carry blood from the a) body to the heart, b) heart to the lungs, c) lungs to the heart, d) heart to the body

c) lungs to the heart

Which of the following is not a method used by at least some frogs for caring for fertilized eggs as they develop? a) gastric-brooding, b) vocal-chord brooding, c) sitting on eggs (nest-brooding), d) mouth-brooding

d) mouth-brooding

Most amphibians exist as a) aquatic larvae that breathe with gills and as terrestrial adults that breathe using lungs and skin, b) aquatic larvae that breathe using lungs and skin and as terrestrial adults that breathe with gills, c) terrestrial larvae that breathe with gills and as aquatic adults that breathe using lungs and skin, d) terrestrial larvae that breathe with gills and lungs and as aquatic adults that breathe using skin

a) aquatic larvae that breathe with gills and as terrestrial adults that breathe using lungs and skin

The first amphibian probably resembled a) jawless fishes, like the lamprey, b) cartilaginous fishes, like the skate, c) lobe-finned fishes, like the coelacanth, d) rey-finned fishes, like the salmon

c) lobe-finned fishes like the coelacanth

Adaptations that helped early amphibians live on land included all of the following EXCEPT a) strong limb bones, b) dry, scaly, skin c) lungs and breathing tubes, d) a bony rib cage

b) dry, scaly skin

The mimicry practiced by some species of nontoxic amphibians would be most effective against predators that hunt by sensing the a) smell of their prey, b) color of their prey, c) sounds made by their prey, d) heat released by their prey

b) color of their prey

In a frog, the cavity through which digestive wastes, urine, and eggs or sperm leave the body is the a) cloaca, b) colon, c) gallbladder, d) pancreas

a) cloaca

A frog's tympanic membranes would be most useful for a) enabling the frog to jump long distances, b) filtering wastes from the frog's blood, c) listening to the mating calls of other frogs, d) keeping the frog's eyes from drying out on land

c) listening to the mating calls of other frogs

Amphibians receive sound waves in their ___, which then causes vibrations that transfer to the ___, which transfers movement to the ___ and finally to the ___.

tympanic membrane, columella, inner ear, brain

What structure allows an amphibian the ability to see underwater without damaging its eyes?

nictating membrane

T or F: Lobe-finned fishes were the ancestors of amphibians

True

T or F: A land animal needs stronger bones and muscles than an aquatic animal does because of the increased pull of gravity on terrestrial body structures

True

T or F: A fish's gills would collapse on land

True

T or F: Since they live in salt water, marine fishes do not have a problem maintaining the proper balance of water and salt in their body

False

T or F: The first fishes that appeared in the ancient seas were jaw less and toothless

True

T or F: Sharks have good vision and can detect electromagnetic fields coming from prey animals

True

T or F: Sharks and rays have skeletons of bone

False

T or F: Bony fishes have a swim bladder

True

T or F: Members of the class Osteichthyes have skeletons of cartilage

False

T or F: In fishes, oxygenated blood passes from the gills to the heart and then to the rest of the body

False

Which of the following is not found in all vertebrates? a) jaws, b) cranium, c) endoskeleton, d) vertebral column

a) jaws

The first stage in the evolution of the animal body occurred a) over millions of years in the sea, b) relatively recently, once organisms emerged from the sea, c) among free-floating algae in ancient seas, d) on dry land, several hundred million years ago

a) over millions of years in the sea

Jaws probably evolved from the a) pectoral fins of jawless fishes, b) gills slits of sharks and rays, c) paired pelvic fins of jawless fishes, d) gill arches of jawless fishes

d) gill arches of jawless fishes

The concentration of the urine an animal produces depends primarily on a) the time of the year, b) the size of the organism, c) the animal's environment, d) the diet of the organism

c) the animal's environment

The structure of a fish that filters dissolved chemical wastes from the blood is a(n) a) lung, b) heart, c) amnion, d) kidney

d) kidney

The urinary bladder and kidneys make up the __ of a fish, a) respiratory system, b) digestive system, c) excretory system, d) circulatory system

c) excretory system

Substances that are useful to the body, but filtered out of the blood by kidneys a) are lost and must be constantly replaced through the animal's diet, b) would prove poisonous if allowed to remain in the blood, c) are converted to feces to be disposed of, d) are selectively reabsorbed back into the blood

d) are selectively reabsorbed back into the blood

Lampreys and hagfishes have a) jaws, b) paired fins, c) a rigid skeleton, d) a notochord through all stages of their life cycle

d) a notochord through all stages of their life cycle

The word agnatha means a) "bony fishes", b) "without jaws", c) "without vertebral column", d) "early fish"

b) "without jaws"

The first vertebrates a) were jawless fishes, b) had thick, bony plates that covered their bodies, c) had no well-developed vertebral column, d) all of the above

d) all of the above

The living agnathans are the a) lampreys and sharks, b) sharks and rays, c) hagfishes and coelacanths, d) lampreys and hagfishes

d) lampreys and hagfishes

The ion concentration in the body of a shark a) changes constantly as the shark swims at different depths, b) is higher than that in the surrounding sea water, c) is lower than that in the surrounding sea water, d) is the same as that in the surrounding sea water

d) is the same as that in the surrounding sea water

The word chondrichthyes means a) bony fish, b) gilled fish, c) big fish, d) cartilage fish

d) cartilage fish

Cartilaginous fishes have all the following except a) spiracles, b) internal fertilization, c) swim bladder, d) gill slits

c) swim bladder

Which of the following senses is not used by sharks to detect prey? a) olfaction, b) vision, c) lateral-line system, d) touch

d) touch

The eggs of sharks a) all develop externally, b) are fertilized internally, c) are fertilized externally, d) have shells like those of chicken eggs

b) are fertilized internally

Members of the class Osteichthyes a) have skeletons made of bone, b) do not have jaws, c) include the rays and skates, d) all of the above

a) have skeletons made of bone

Lungfishes a) may live in water with a low oxygen content, b) are lobe-finned fishes, c) can breathe air, d) all of the above

d) all of the above

The coelacanth is a a) lungfish, b) cartilaginous fish, c) ray-finned fish, d) lobe-finned fish

d) lobe-finned fish

A collection chamber that reduces the resistance of blood flow into the heart of a fish is called the a) sinus venosus, b) ventricle, c) conus arteriosus, d) atrium

a) sinus venosus

The countercurrent flow of water and blood found in the gills of fishes a) allows blood and water to flow in the same direction, b) ensures that oxygen diffuses into the blood over the whole length of the blood vessels in the gills, c) results in an uneven supply of oxygen reaching the blood vessels in the gills, d) hampers the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and the water

b) ensures that oxygen diffuses into the blood over the whole length of the blood vessels in the gills

The operculum a) is part of the skeletal system, b) is an adaptation for rapid swimming, c) covers the gill chamber, d) none of the above

c) covers the gill chamber

The swim bladder a) stores air for breathing, b) contains antibodies, c) is found in all amphibians, d) allows fishes to become more buoyant

d) allows fishes to become more buoyant

External fertilization is not common on land because a) both sperm and egg run the risk of drying out, b) sexual reproduction takes place more readily in rivers, lakes and oceans, c) most of Earth's surface area is covered by water, d) all of the above

a) both the sperm and egg run the risk of dying out

In most bony fishes a) internal fertilization takes place, b) external fertilization takes place, c) internal development takes place, d) all of the above

b) external fertilization takes place

In chordates, the long supporting rod that runs through the body is called the a) nerve cord, b) notochord, c) pharyngeal pouch, d) nerve cord

b) notochord

Which of these chordate characteristics exists as paired structures? a) tail, b) notochord, c) pharyngeal pouch, d) nerve cord

c) pharyngeal pouch

In some chordates, pharyngeal pouches develop into slits that develop into a) fins, b) gills, c) blood vessels, d) vertebrae

b) notochord

A vertebrate is any chordate that has a a) backbone, b) notochord, c) hollow nerve cord, d) tail that extends beyond the anus

a) backbone

Blood flows through the body of a fish in a a) single-loop open circulatory system, b) single-loop closed circulatory system, c) double-loop open circulatory system, d) double-loop closed circulatory system

b) single-loop closed circulatory system

Most fishes get rid of nitrogenous wastes by a) taking in ammonia through the gills and eliminating it from the kidneys, b) taking in water through the kidneys and eliminating ammonia from the gills, c) eliminating ammonia from the gills and from the kidneys, d) eliminating urine from the gills and ammonia from the kidneys

c) eliminating ammonia from the gills and from the kidneys

If a fish's olfactory bulbs were damaged, the fish probably would be unable to a) coordinate its body movements, b) recognize substances by their smell, c) discriminate between light and dark objects, d) detect vibrations in the water

b) recognize substances by their smell

Suppose a fish is swimming upstream in total darkness. Which of the following would be most likely to help the fish sense aquatic predators that approach it from behind? a) its well-developed eyes, b) its chemoreceptors, c) its lateral line system, d) its bulbus arteriosus

c) its lateral line system

The eggs of many species of sharks a) are released from the mother's body before fertilization, b) are released from the mother's body after fertilization, c) are released from the mother's body after developing into young embryos, d) hatch inside the mother's body, where the young sharks continue to grow

d) hatch inside the mother's body, where the young sharks continue to grow

The 2 major groups of bony fishes are the lobe-finned fishes and the a) lungfishes, b) ray-finned fishes, c) coelacanths, d) placoderms

b) ray-finned fishes

The part of a fish's brain that processes olfactory information is the ___, which controls voluntary movements in most other vertebrates.

cerebrum

The process of ___ is responsible for the exchange of gases across respiratory membranes.

diffusion

Marine bony fishes lose water continuously by ___ to the saltier water in which they swim.

osmosis

In fishes and amphibians, gills develop from slits that form in the ___.

pharyngeal pouches

Adult salmon can distinguish their home stream from other streams by using their sense of ___.

smell

T or F: Arthropods evolved from insects

False

T or F: Arthropods have an exoskeleton made of chitin

True

T or F: The outer layer of the arthropod exoskeleton is shed during molting, but products of the breakdown of the exoskeleton inner layer are used to make a new exoskeleton

True

T or F: Most crustaceans are aquatic

True

T or F: Crustaceans range in size from microscopic forms to huge lobsters

True

T or F: Despite the high concentrations often found in the sea, copepods play a very small role in the ocean's food web

False

T or F: The barnacle is an example of a crustacean that is sessile as an adult

True

T or F: The swimmerets of lobsters and crayfish are attached to their thorax

False

T or F: The anatomy of spiders and insects are essentially identical

False

T or F: Except for the number of legs, millipedes and centipedes are basically the same in structure and diet

False

The appendages of arthropods a) may serve as walking legs, b) may be modifies into antennae, c) may be modifies into large pincers, d) all of the above

d) all of the above

The exoskeleton of arthropods and the skin of vertebrates both a) are waterproof coatings of their bodies, b) are necessary for sensing sound vibration, c) have joints that allow movement to occur, d) provide physical support to the body

a) are waterproof coatings of the bodies

Jointed appendages of arthropods may a) become specialized for particular functions, b) function in locomotion, c) function in feeding, d) all of the above

d) all of the above

Characteristic of the arthropods include a) segmentation, b) a chitinous exoskeleton, c) jointed appendages, d) all of the above

d) all of the above

Arthropods have a hard outer skeleton and a) a backbone, b) hair, c) a four-chambered heart, d) jointed appendages

d) jointed appendages

Molting in arthropods occurs in response to a) enzyme action, b) hormonal action, c) pressure, d) all of the above

d) all of the above

In what way are lobsters similar to spiders? a) they have jointed appendages, b) they have exoskeletons, c) they have segmented bodies, d) all of the above

d) all of the above

Crabs, lobsters, shrimp and barnacles are members of the subphylum a) diptera, b) centipeda, c) crustacea, d) arachnida

c) crustacea

If all copepods died, a) bubonic plague would cease to be a problem, b) predators that depend on them would quickly find substitute food sources in the sea and fresh water, c) our sources of food from the ocean would disappear, d) nothing would change

c) our sources of food from the ocean would disappear

Spiders, scorpions and mites belong to the subphylum a) Arthropoda, b) Crustacea, c) Chordata, d) Chelicerata

d) Chelicerata

Spiders, scorpions and ticks belong to the class a) Isoptera, b) Crustacea, c) Chordata, d) Arachnida

d) Arachnida

Spiders use silk to a) trap their prey, b) line their nets, c) encase captured prey, d) all of the above

d) all of the above

The small nozzle-like structures used by spiders to produce silk are called a) mouthparts, b) pedipalps, c) spinnerets, d) silk nozzles

c) spinnerets

Millipedes feed mainly on a) decayed plants, b) other insects, c) crustaceans, d) wood products

a) decayed plants

Centipedes a) have one pair of legs per segments and eat decaying matter, b) have two pairs of legs per segment and are predators, c) have two pairs of legs per segment and eat decaying matter, d) have one pair of legs per segment and are predators

d) have one pair of legs per segment and are predators

What does molting enable arthropods to do? a) to breathe, b) to reproduce, c) to grow, d) to eat

c) to grow

An example of a chelicerate is a a) lobster, b) centipede, c) crayfish, d) spider

d) spider

Insects are classified as a) crustaceans, b) arachnids, c) uniramians, d) chelicerates

c) uniramians

The easiest way to tell whether an arthropod is an insect or a spider is to a) observe its color, b) count its legs, c) count its swimmerets, d) measure the length of its body

b) count its legs

The respiratory organ in terrestrial chelicerates is the a) chelicera, b) book lung, c) book gill, d) pedipalp

b) book lung

How many pairs of legs are there on most body segments of a centipede? a) one, b) two, c) five, d) six

a) one

Crustaceans breathe with the aid of ___

gills

Scorpions are distinguished from other arthropods by the presence of a ___ on the abdomen

stinger

T or F: The majority of animal species are classified as invertebrates

True

T or F: All chordates are classified as vertebrates

False

T or F: All animal cells lack cell walls

True

T or F: A tissue is a group of dissimilar cells that are organized into a functional unit

False

T or F: The development of a particular animal's body plan depends on the animal's environment, rather than on the genetic information it carries

False

T or F: Although animal life is through to have evolved originally in the sea, the vast majority of animals today are terrestrial

False

T or F: On an upright, bipedal animal such as a human, the ventral surface is the front side of the body and the dorsal surface is the back side of the body

True

T or F: Radially symmetric animals have no anterior end and no posterior end, but do have a bottom and a top

True

T or F: An advantage of cephalization is that an animal enters its environment head first, and therefore can immediately sense important stimuli

True

T or F: The fluid in the body cavity of an animal acts as a medium of transport for nutrients and wastes

True

T or F: Segmentation occurs in the bodies of annelids and arthropods but is not present in chordates

False

T or F: An advantage of a long digestive tract is that it provides a large surface area over which nutrients can be absorbed

True

T or F: At the start of gastrulation, the embryo is cup-shaped and has 3 distinct germ layers

False

All the members of the kingdom Animalia a) are heterotrophs, b) are multicellular, c) have cells without cell walls, d) all of the above

d) all of the above

Specialized cells a) can carry out their tasks more effectively than cells that must do many tasks, b) are found only in chordates and echinoderms, c) always operate independently of all other cells, d) all of the above

a) can carry out their tasks more effectively than cells that must do many tasks

A group of similar cells organized into a functional unit is called a) a nervous system, b) specialized cells, c) a tissue, d) an organ

c) a tissue

Animals probably evolved from a) plants, b) photosynthetic protists, c) heterotrophic protists, d) none of the above

c) heterotrophic protists

Modern organisms that are thought to resemble the earliest animals are a) plants, b) colonial protists, c) unicellular protozoans, d) bacteria

b) colonial protists

Most animals have a head that is located at the ___ end of their body and a tail that is located at the ___ end of their body. a) ventral;dorsal, b) dorsal; ventral, c) anterior; posterior, d) posterior; anterior

c) anterior; posterior

Cephalization a) is a feature of most invertebrates, including the sponges, b) is characterized by the concentration of sensory organs in the anterior end, c) occurs in marine protozoa, d) results when the brain does not develop properly

b) is characterized by the concentration of sensory organs in the anterior end

Which of the following is found in vertebrates but not in invertebrates? a) dorsal nerve cord, b) coelom, c) 3 germ layers, d) bilateral symmetry

a) dorsal nerve cord

A characteristic shared by all chordates at some stage of their development is a) a dorsal holllow nerve cord, b) a notochord, c) pharyngeal pouches, d) all of the above

d) all of the above

Which of the following is not a vertebrate adaptation to life on land? a) lungs, b) internal fertilization, c) endoskeleton, d) brain

d) brain

In sponges, digestion occurs in a) a gut, b) individual cells, c) a central cavity with a single opening, d) outside of the animal's body

b) individual cells

During which of the following stages of animal development are the germ layers formed? a) fertilization, b) cleavage, c) gastrulation, d) organ formation

c) gastrulation

The acoelomate body type is exemplified by a) flatworms, b) roundworms, c) mollusks, d) annelids

d) annelids

Which of the following is an incorrect match? a) ectoderm-nervous system, b) mesoderm-skeletal system, c) endoderm-muscular system, d) endoderm-digestive system

c) endoderm-muscular system

Which of the following animals is a deuterostome? a) annelid, b) arthropod, c) mollusk, d) chordate

d) chordate

The backbone is a characteristic of a) worms, b) all chordates, c) vertebrates only, d) reptiles only

c) vertebrates only

In a protostome, the blastopore becomes a(an) a) mouth, b) anus, c) zygote, d) blastula

a) mouth

A body cavity that forms between the germ layers is called a (an) a) coelom, b) blastopore, c) mesoderm, d) ectoderm

a) coelom

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