In the presence of oxygen, the three-carbon compound pyruvate can be catabolized in the citric acid cycle. First, however, the pyruvate 1) loses a carbon, which is given off as a molecule of CO2, 2) is oxidized to form a two-carbon compound called acetate, and 3) is bonded to coenzyme A.
These three steps result in the formation of
Acetyl CoA, NADH, H+, and CO2.
What does the electron transport chain achieve?
NADH and FADH2 are reduced releasing energy which powers an integral membrane protein which pump H+ ions from the inner membrane space into the outermembrane space causing an electrochemical gradient of H+ ions to build up (the concentration of H+ ions builds up in the outer membrane space). This contains the potential energy that drives ATPsynthase synthesis of ATP by allowing the H+ to diffuse back through the inner membrane through ATPsynthase. As H+ moves through the ATPsynthase it produces ATP. The energy in the electrochemical gradient powers ATPsynthase and the production of ATP through this process known as chemiosmosis.
During energy payoff phase: 2 Glyceraldehyde-3-P + 4 ADP + 2 Pi + 2 NAD+ -->
2 Pyruvate + 4 ATP +2 NADH
What is glycolysis?
It is the splitting of glucose into 2 glyceradehyde molecules which are converted into 2 pyruvate molecules. It also produces 2 NADH + 2ATP.