In the presence of oxygen, the three-carbon compound pyruvate can be catabolized in the citric acid cycle. First, however, the pyruvate 1) loses a carbon, which is given off as a molecule of CO2, 2) is oxidized to form a two-carbon compound called acetate, and 3) is bonded to coenzyme A.
These three steps result in the formation of
Acetyl CoA, NADH, H+, and CO2.
How many NADH are produced by glycolysis?
What are the products of the citric acid cycle?
3NADH + 1ATP + 1FADH2 + 2CO2
What is the net gain of glycolysis?
2 ATP + 2NADH + 2 Pyruvate
What are the inputs into glycolysis?
Glucose + 2NAD+ +2ATP + 4ADP + 2Pi
What are the outputs from glycolysis?
2 Pyruvate + 2 NADH + 2ADP + 4 ATP
What does the electron transport chain achieve?
NADH and FADH2 are reduced releasing energy which powers an integral membrane protein which pump H+ ions from the inner membrane space into the outermembrane space causing an electrochemical gradient of H+ ions to build up (the concentration of H+ ions builds up in the outer membrane space). This contains the potential energy that drives ATPsynthase synthesis of ATP by allowing the H+ to diffuse back through the inner membrane through ATPsynthase. As H+ moves through the ATPsynthase it produces ATP. The energy in the electrochemical gradient powers ATPsynthase and the production of ATP through this process known as chemiosmosis.
During the energy investment phase: Glucose + 2 ATP = ?
2 Glyceraldehyde-3-P + 2 ADP
During energy payoff phase: 2 Glyceraldehyde-3-P + 4 ADP + 2 Pi + 2 NAD+ -->
2 Pyruvate + 4 ATP +2 NADH
What is glycolysis?
It is the splitting of glucose into 2 glyceradehyde molecules which are converted into 2 pyruvate molecules. It also produces 2 NADH + 2ATP.
How much energy in the form of ATP and NADH is obtained by glycolysis?