Sociology Final (Part 2)

35 terms by jimmy_johnson 

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Differential association theory was developed by sociologist ________.

Edward Sutherland

Suicide bombers in Iraq are accorded high praise by those who oppose an American presence in the Middle East and are considered heroic warriors. Such honor and praise is an example of a ________.

Positive Sanction

Napoleon Chagnon's visit to the Yanomamö tribe, where he observed tribe members appearing naked in public, using hallucinogenic drugs, and letting mucus hang from their noses, is a good example of ________.

the cultural relativity of deviance

In an effort to resist the label of "deviant," most people will develop rationales to justify their deviant acts. Sykes and Matza refer to these rationales as ________.

techniques of neutralization

The concept of the relativity of deviance is BEST illustrated by which of the following statements?

It is not the act itself, but the reaction of others to the act that makes it deviant.

The significance of names or reputations given to people when they engage in certain types of behavior is the focus of ________ theory.

labeling

The percentage of former prisoners who are rearrested is known as ___________.

recidivism

The relativity of deviance is MOST aligned with which sociological perspective?

symbolic interactionism

Based on the Marxist orientation of conflict sociologists, how many distinct social classes exist?

Two

What region of the United States has the highest clustering of people in poverty?

The South

What was the term C. Wright Mills used to refer to those who make the big decisions in American society?

The power elite

When individuals experience status inconsistency, what is their likely choice of behavior?

The higher status

When used by sociologists, the term "wealth" refers to ________.

the value of a person's property minus that person's debt, a person's net worth

What is the term used to describe an attitude that exaggerates the virtues of a group, such as all Asian Americans being brilliant or all African Americans being great athletes?

Positive Prejudice

Based on the textbook, what are two ways a group becomes a minority?

the expansion of political boundaries and migration

For the last five years, Sarah has been trying to recover her ethnic heritage by tracing her family line. This attempt to trace her family line is an example of ________.

ethnic work

What is a group of people with inherited physical characteristics that distinguish it from another group?

A race

When the Native Americans were pacified by the military in the late 1800s, they were forced to learn the English language, dress like the white man, renounce their religion, and give up their customs. This was a classic example of ________.

forced assimilation

Which statement is most
accurate regarding the meaning of race?

Race varies, depending upon the society in which its meaning is constructed.

While race might reflect our biological heritage, ________ reflects our cultural heritage.

Ethnicity

The not-so-empty nest is a phrase that refers to when children ________.

have moved out as young adults, then return to live with their parents

Sociologically, a family that consists of a husband, wife and children is called a ________.

nuclear family

How has the age of the average first-time bride and groom in the United States changed since 1890?

Both bride and groom are older than any other time.

Husbands remain primarily responsible for earning the income and wives are primarily responsible for the house and children. This is an arrangement sociologists call ________.

The gendered division of labor

In some tribal societies it is highly encouraged for the son or daughter of one tribe to marry the son or daughter of a neighboring or rival tribe to build camaraderie and form an alliance. This pattern of marital behavior is called ________.

exogamy

John was adopted as an infant by the Smiths, and has always considered them his real family. What do sociologists classify the Smith family as it is regarded by John?

His family of orientation

The term for children who return to live at home after college is ________.

adultolescents

Which sentence best describes the divorce rate of remarried people without children?

Its about the same.

With 54 million members, which denomination has the highest membership in the United States?

Roman Catholic

A state religion is referred to as a(n) ________ when the government and religion work together to try to shape society.

ecclesia

From a symbolic interactionist perspective, what does wearing a cross signify for Christians?

It is a condensed way for the wearer to say, "I am a follower of Jesus Christ."

Sociologically, how would a cult be defined?

a new or different religion at odds with the dominant culture and religion

Next week, Abraham and Hazel will attend the bar mitzvah of their nephew. Their nephew's bar mitzvah is an example of a religious ________.

ritual

What did Durkheim call the common elements of everyday life?

profane

What was Weber's term to describe the ideal of a self-denying, highly moral life, accompanied by hard work and frugality?

Protestant ethic

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