# What You Need To Know for the Science 8 Final (Part 1)

## 69 terms · Study for the Final!!!

### Lever

A rigid object that pivots about a fixed point

### 3 Types of Levers

First Class Levers, Second Class Levers, Third Class Levers

### 2 Ways an Object Can Accelerate

Change speed, change direction

### Law of Conservation of Energy

The principle that energy cannot be created or destroyed; thus, the total amount of energy remains the same during physical or chemical change

### Temperature

The measure of the average energy of the motion of particles in a substance

### Absolute Zero

The temperature at which no more energy can be removed from matter

### 3 States of Matter

Solid, Liquid, Gas

### Solid

A state of matter that has a definite volume and a definite shape

### Liquid

A state of matter that has no definite shape but has a definite volume

### Gas

A state of matter that has no definite shape or volume

### 6 Sources of Energy

Mechanical energy, Thermal energy, Chemical energy, Electrical energy, Electromagnetic energy, Nuclear energy

### Mechanical Energy

Kinetic or potential energy associated with the motion or position of an object

### Thermal Energy

The total energy of a substance's particles due to their movement or vibration

### Chemical Energy

The potential energy stored in chemical compounds

### Electrical Energy

The energy of moving electric charges

### Electromagnetic Energy

The energy of light and other forms of radiation

### Nuclear Energy

The potential energy stored in the nucleus of an atom

### Machine

A device that changes the amount of force exerted or the direction in which force is exerted

A single machine

### Compound Machine

A machine that utilizes two or more simple machines

### 3 Ways Machines Work

Multiply force, multiply distance, change direction

### Gravity

The force that pulls objects toward each other

### Free Fall

The motion of a falling object when the only force acting upon it is gravity

### Potential Energy

Energy that is stored and held in readiness

### Kinetic Energy

Energy that an object has due to its motion

### Newton's First Law

An object at rest will remain at rest, and an object that is moving at a constant velocity will continue moving at a constant velocity, unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.

### Newton's Second Law

The net force on an object is equal to the product of its acceleration and its mass

### Newton's Third Law

If one object exerted a force on another object, then the second object exerts a force of equal magnitude in the opposite direction of the first object.

Force / mass

### Mass

A measure of much matter is in an object

### Weight

A measure of the force of gravity on an object

### Convection

The transfer of heat by the movement of current within a fluid

### Conduction

The transfer of heat between particles within a substance

The transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves

### Force

A push or pull exerted on an object

### Friction

A force that is exerted when two substances are rubbed together; electrons are transferred by the rubbing

### Crest

The highest part of a transverse wave

### Trough

The lowest part of a transverse wave

### Frequency

The number of complete waves that pass a given point in a certain amount of time

### Wavelength

The distance between the crest of one wave and the crest of the next

### Refraction

The bending of waves as they enter a different medium

### Doppler Effect

The apparent change in frequency of a sound as the source moves in relation to the listener

### Real Image

An inverted image formed where rays of light meet

### Virtual Image

An upright image formed where rays of light appear to meet or come from

Red, Green, Blue

### Primary Colors of Pigment

Cyan, Yellow, Magenta

### 3 Things that can Happen when Light Strikes an Object

Reflected, Absorbed, Transmitted

### Opaque

A material that reflects or absorbs all light that strikes light

### Translucent

A material that scatters light as it passes through

### Transparent

A material that transmits light

### Friction

A force that is exerted when two substances are rubbed together; electrons are transferred by the rubbing

### Static Electricity

A buildup of charges on an object

### Parallel Circuit

An electric circuit with multiple paths

### Series Circuit

An electric circuit with a single path

attract.

repel.

### When magnets are cut in half...

both halves form a north and south pole.

### Electromagnet

A strong magnet that can be turned on and off; a solenoid with a ferromagnetic core

### Solenoid

A current-carrying coil of wire with many loops that act as a magnet

### Turbine

A circular device with many blades that is turned by water, wind, steam, or tides

### Concave Lens

A lens that is thinner in the center than at the edges

### Convex Lens

A lens that is thicker at the center than at the edges

### Charles Law

The relationship between the temperature and volume of gas at constant pressure; where temperature increases, volume decreases

...

### Liquid

A state of matter that has no definite shape but has a definite volume

...

### Boyle's Law

The relationship between the pressure and volume of gas at constant temperature; when volume increases, pressure decreases

Mass / Volume

### Bernoulli Effect

The rule that a stream of fast-moving fluid exerts less pressure than the surrounding fluid