Chemistry Chapter 19 Study Guide

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carbon

All organic compounds contain ____________________.

covalent

Carbon atoms usually form ____________________ bonds.

tetrahedral

The atoms in a diamond form a ____________________ network.

four

Carbon can form up to ____________________ single covalent bonds.

nanotube

An allotrope of carbon made of hexagons that form a hollow tube is a(n) ____________________.

graphite

The carbon atoms in the allotrope ____________________ are bonded in a hexagonal pattern.

alkane

A(n) ____________________ is a hydrocarbon that contains only single bonds.

double

An alkene is a hydrocarbon that contains one or more ____________________ bonds.

aromatic

Benzene is an example of a(n) ____________________ compound.

functional group

An atom or group of atoms that gives characteristic properties, the bonds of which are involved in reactions, and is used to classify organic compounds is known as a ____________________.

amine

An organic compound that is a common ingredient in soft drinks is ____________________.

isomers

Two compounds with the same chemical formula but different chemical and physical properties are ____________________.

natural gas

The simplest alkane is methane, the main component of ____________________.

saturated

A hydrocarbon in which each carbon atom forms four single covalent bonds with other atoms is a ____________________ hydrocarbon.

longest

To name a branched hydrocarbon, determine the number of carbon atoms in the ____________________ chain.

skeletal structures

Structural formulas are sometimes represented by ________________________.

chemical formula

The type of molecular model that shows the number of atoms but not the size or shape of the atoms is the _________________________.

hydrogen

The element ____________________ is usually not shown in a skeletal structure.

substitution reaction

A(n) _________________________ is a reaction in which one or more atoms replace another atom or group of atoms.

addition reaction

A(n) _________________________ is a reaction in which an atom is added to an unsaturated molecule, increasing the saturation of the molecule.

polymer

A large molecule that is made by an addition reaction is a ____________________.

condensation reaction

A reaction in which two smaller molecules combine, usually with the formation of water, is a(n) _________________________.

elimination reaction

A reaction in which a simple molecule is removed from adjacent carbon atoms of a larger molecule is a(n) _________________________.

elimination

The mixing of sucrose and concentrated sulfuric acid is a(n) ____________________ reaction that removes water from the sucrose.

condensation

Nylon 66 is produced though a(n) ____________________ reaction.

The bonds are very strong, they are not extremely reactive under ordinary conditions, and carbon can form up to four single covalent bonds.

What are the three characteristics of carbon bonds that make them unique?

Nanotubes are made of hexagons of carbon atoms that form a hollow tube. They are very small and thin (about 10,000 times smaller than the diameter of a human hair), but they are very strong, up to 10 to 1000 times stronger than steel.

What is unique about a nanotube, the newly discovered allotrope of carbon?

They are classified based on the bonding between carbon atoms. Alkanes have single bonds, alkenes have one or more double bonds, and alkynes have at least one triple bond.

How are hydrocarbons classified?

Functional groups are involved in chemical reactions. They are responsible for how an organic compound reacts and help determine its properties.

What role do functional groups play in the behavior of organic compounds?

They are similar in that they are both alcohols and they both have the same molecular formula. But their atoms are arranged differently, giving them different chemical and physical properties. These two molecules are isomers.

How are 1-butanol and isobutyl alcohol similar? How are they different?

The carbon atoms in a saturated hydrocarbon form four single covalent bonds with other atoms. Not all of the carbon atoms in an unsaturated hydrocarbon have four single covalent bonds.

Compare saturated hydrocarbons to unsaturated hydrocarbons.

The four ways include a chemical formula, a structural formula, a skeletal structure, and a space-filling model.

What are the four ways to represent an organic molecule?

Hydrogen is shown only when it is part of the functional group.

When is hydrogen shown in a skeletal structure?

A substitution reaction is a reaction where one or more atoms replace another atom or group of atoms. An addition reaction is a reaction in which an atom or molecule is added to an unsaturated molecule, increasing the saturation of the molecule.

How is a substitution reaction different from an addition reaction?

Vegetable oil is converted to a solid form through the process of hydrogenation. Hydrogenation is a simple addition reaction where hydrogen gas is passed through the oil, adding hydrogen atoms to the unsaturated molecule.

How is vegetable oil converted into solid margarine?

Polyethylene is made from the monomer ethene. The ethene monomers are joined together to form larger molecules through addition reactions.

How is polyethylene made?

Two molecules combine in a condensation reaction, usually resulting in the formation of a water molecule. An elimination reaction occurs when a simple molecule is removed from adjacent carbon atoms on the same organic molecule.

How is a condensation reaction different from an elimination reaction?

Nylon is produced from a condensation reaction between an amine group on hexanediamine and a carboxyl group on adipic acid.

How is nylon produced?

PET is formed from a condensation reaction. It is formed from an alcohol and an organic acid. Water forms from between the alcohol and the acid. The two monomers bond, forming the polyester, PET.

Describe the formation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET).

A diamond contains an enormous number of carbon atoms that form a very strong tetrahedral network. Graphite is very soft and has carbon atoms that are bonded in a hexagonal, planer pattern. Weak bonds hold the planes together, causing the graphite to "peel" apart.

Describe the difference between diamonds and graphite.

A saturated fat is one in which all of the carbon atoms form four single covalent bonds. An unsaturated fat is one in which not all of the carbon atoms form four single covalent bonds. Margarine and vegetable shortening are saturated fats, while vegetable oil is an example of an unsaturated fat.

What is the difference between a saturated fat and an unsaturated fat?

Your hair is a natural organic compound made from proteins. Paper is made from cellulose, an organic acid. Citrus fruits contain the organic acid, citric acid. Plastics such as PET, nylon, rubber, and some pharmaceutical drugs are synthetic organic compounds.

What are some examples of natural organic compounds? Of synthetic organic compounds?

covalent bonds

Carbon shows a very strong tendency to form _______________

tetrahedron

When a carbon atom forms four covalent bonds, the bonds are directed toward the corners of a
___________

both other elements and carbon.

Carbon atoms readily join with atoms of _________________.

rubber

Name the polymer(s) in the process used to make vulcanized rubber by heating rubber and sulfur.

the same

All organic compounds containing the same functional group are classfied together and behave ______.

polymers (1)

Which are large molecules made of many small units joined by organic reactions?

a polymer.

Two different monomers joined to each other form

natural polymers

Macromolecules found in living things are ______________

addition polymer

What polymer is formed by a chain addition reaction between monomers that have a double bond?

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