Fuggi Midterm Review

72 terms by ParklandHS 

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ten

metric system is based on this number

meter

standard unit of distance measuring in the metric system

liter

standard unit of measuring volume in the metric system

gram

standard unit of measuring weight(mass) in the metric system

mass

the amount of matter in an object

obervation

start of all science

hypothesis

an educated guess

variable

the thing that we change in a controlled experiment

one variable at a time

makes for the best experiments

organisms

living things

homeostasis

one of the seven characteristics of living things that means organisms are able to actively maintain a stable internal environment

adaptation

a living thing is able to change to fit in an environment

cell

the building block on which all life is based

unicellular

the simplest forms of life

lowest objective

start with this objective when using a microscope

cells

make up all living things

atoms

building blocks of matter

matter

anything with mass and occupies space

protons

subatomic particles that have a positive charge

nucleus

found in the center of an atom and is made up of protons and neutrons

electrons

subatomic particles that have a negative charge

neutons

subatomic particles that have a neutral charge

electron cloud

made up of orbitals and surrounds the nucleus

element

pure or single type of atom

molecule

can be a single or group of attached atoms

atomic number

the number of protons in an atom

nucleus

the central core of an atom

atomic mass

the number of protons plus the number of neutrons

neutrons

always equal the number of protons

Periodic Table

lists elements according to their properties

orbitals

energy levels around the nucleus where electrons are arranged

valence electrons

the only electrons that matter in making bonds

phase

a changeable state of matter

gas

fills entire space of container it is in and has an indefinite shape and volume

solid

has a definite shape and volume

liquid

has no shape but definite volume and takes the shape of it's container

chemical

any substance having a defined composition and properties

bonding

involves the sharing or transferring of valence electrons

ionic

a bond where an atom mostly transfers its electrons

covalent

a bond where an atom shares electrons

outer shell

atoms always want this empty or full

mitochondria

supplies energy to the cell

ribosomes

protein factories of the cell

endoplasmic reticulum

acts as a "highway" or canal system for intracellular movement of substances

golgi apparatus

processes and packages substances produced by the cell

lysosome

digests molecules, old organelles, and foreign substances ("clean-up crew")

cytoplasm

area between the nucleus and the cell membrane

cell membrane

this regulates what comes in and goes out of a cell

nucleus

control center of the cell and stores hereditary information

vacuole

stores cellular waste and excess water in the cell

cell wall

this gives structural support and controls water pressure inside plant cells

living things are composed of cells

Example:the smallest living organisms are made up of a single cell

living things maintain homeostasis

Example: humans have an internal temperature of 98.6 degrees

living things display heredity

Example: some students look just like their parents; paleontologists compare genetic material from extinct animals to animals living today

living things grow and develop

Example:a baby elephant gains weight ; human babies walk at around 10 months

living things reproduce

Example:fish lay millions of eggs; a human stays pregnant for nine months; a women had 15 children

living things require energy

Example: the baby wanted to eat every 2 hours

living things adapt

Example: even though the deer lost its leg it still survived

living things respond to stimulus

Example: the dog ran to the kitchen when ever he heard the can opened; when the deer smelled the hunter he ran away

experimental

the group in an experiment that is purposely manipulated

control

the group in an experiment not manipulated (the "standard", it stays the same)

variable

the "factor" the scientist purposely changes in an experiment

quantitative

the kind of data that can be counted or measured

qualitative

data that are descriptive and involve characteristics that can't usually be counted

hypothesis

an educated guess

scientific method

the method all scientists use to carry out their research or use to answer their questions

order of the scientific method

1. make an observation 2. form hypothesis 3. set up experiment 4. record and analyze 5. draw conclusion 6. publish results

coarse adjustment knob

the knob one should always start with when first focusing a microscope

chloroplasts

the organelle where photosynthisis takes place

oxygen

gas that is a product of the process of photosynthesis

water

a reactant of photosynthesis

carbon dioxide

gas that photosynthesis removes from the air

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