process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis
an organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
The range of a pigment's ability to absorb various wavelengths of light.
Profiles the relative effectiveness of different wavelengths of radiation in driving the process of photosynthesis
Large enzyme complex that catalyzes the formation of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate by chemiosmosis; contains a transmembrane channel through which protons diffuse down a concentration gradient.
carbon dioxide fixation
The transfer of carbon dioxide to organic compounds
in chloroplasts and mitochondria, a process in which the movement of protons down their concentration gradient across a membrane is coupled to the synthesis of ATP
stacks of thylakoids
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy.
The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide to water.
The steps in photosynthesis that occur on the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast and that convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH, evolving oxygen in the process.
the light dependent series of reactions that involves photosystems II and I and in which the electrons taken from chlorophyll a are not recycled back down to the ground state ; electrons end up on NADPH and ATP is formed
in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts, a cluster of chlorophyll and other pigment molecules that harvest light energy for the light reactions of photosynthesis
5-carbon sugar that CO2 is attached to when it enters Calvin cycle
enzyme that starts the Calvin cycle by catalyzing attachment of carbon atom from CO2 to RuBP
In the Calvin cycle, a 3-carbon compound that results when the 6-carbon molecule produced from carboxylation of RuBP breaks into two identical molecules
is a 3-carbon compound that is a product of the Calvin Cycle.
light independent reaction
another name for the Calvin Cycle
reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugars
only uses photosystem I; electrons pass down the electron chain and back to Photosystem I.Energy given off is harnessed to produce ATP (only product).