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Anatomy

The study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts and their relationships with one another.

Gross Anatomy

The study of large, easily observable structures.

Regional Anatomy

Where all the structures (muscles, bones, blood vessels, nerves, etc.) in a particular region of the body, such as the abdomen or leg, are examined at the same time.

Systemic Anatomy

Body structure is studied system by system.

Surface Anatomy

The study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface.

Microscopic Anatomy

The study of body structures that are too small to be seen with the naked eye.

Cytology

The study of cells in the body.

Histology

The study of tissues.

Developmental Anatomy

Traces structural changes that occur in the body throughout the life span.

Embryology

A subdivision of developmental anatomy which concerns developmental changes that occur before birth.

Physiology

The study of how the body and its parts work or function.

Renal Physiology

The study of kidney function and urine production.

Neurophysiology

The study of the function of the nervous system.

Cardiac Physiology

The study of the function of the heart.

Name all 6 levels of structural organization (in order)

1. Chemical level (Atoms & Molecules)
2. Cellular level
3. Tissue level
4. Organ level
5. Organ system level
6. Organismal level

Atoms

Tiny building blocks of matter that combine to form molecules such as water, sugar, and proteins.

Cells

The smallest units of all living things.

Tissues

A group of similar cells that have a common function.

Organ

A structure composed of two or more tissue types that performs a specific function for the body.

Organ System

A group of organs that work together to accomplish a common purpose.

Organism

Two or more organ systems working together to accomplish a common purpose.

Name all 11 of the organ systems

1. Integumentary System
2. Skeletal System
3. Muscular System
4. Nervous System
5. Endocrine System
6. Cardiovascular System
7. Lymphatic System
8. Respiratory System
9. Digestive System
10. Urinary System
11. Reproductive System

Integumentary System

The external covering of the body, or the skin.

What does the integumentary system do?

It waterproofs the body and cushions and protects the deeper tissues from injury. It also excretes salts and urea in perspiration and helps regulate body temperature.

Skeletal System

Consists of bones, cartilages, ligaments, and joints.

What does the skeletal system do?

It supports the body and provides a framework that the skeletal muscles use to cause movement.

Muscular System

Formed of skeletal muscles.

What does the muscular system do?

When the muscles contract, or shorten, movement occurs. Muscles move your body.

Nervous System

The body's fast-acting control system. Consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors.

What does the nervous system do?

Sends and receives messages. Responds to irritants or stimuli coming from outside and inside the body.

Endocrine System

The body's slow-acting control system. Consists of endocrine glands which secrete hormones.

What does the endocrine system do?

Controls body activities. Endocrine glands produce chemical molecules called hormones and release them into the blood to travel to organs.

Cardiovascular System

Consists of the heart and blood vessels.

What does the cardiovascular system do?

The heart pumps and pushes blood throughout the body. The blood carries oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and other substances to and from the tissue cells where exchanges are made.

Lymphatic System

Consists of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, spleen, and tonsils.

What does the lymphatic system do?

Lymphatic vessels return fluid leaked from the blood back to the blood vessels so that blood can be kept continuously circulating through the body. Lymph nodes and other lymphoid organs help cleanse the blood and house cells involved in immunity.

Respiratory System

Consists of nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.

What does the respiratory system do?

It keeps the body constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide.

Digestive System

Consists of the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, and rectum. Accessory organs are the liver, salivary glands, pancreas, and others.

What does the digestive system do?

Breaks down food and delivers the products to the blood for dispersal to the body cells.

Urinary System

AKA - Excretory System
Consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

What does the urinary/excretory system do?

Removes the nitrogen-containing wastes from the blood and flushes them from the body in urine.

Reproductive System

Consists of testes, scrotum, penis, accessory glands, and the duct system (for males).
Consists of ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina (for females).

What does the reproductive system do?

Primarily exists to produce offspring.

Principle of Complementarity of Structure and Function

What a structure can do depends on its specific form.

Necessary Life Functions

1. Maintain boundaries
2. Movement
3. Responsiveness
4. Digestion
5. Metabolism
6. Excretion
7. Reproduction
8. Growth

Survival Needs

1. Nutrients
2. Oxygen
3. Water
4. Normal body temperature
5. Appropriate atmospheric pressure

Homeostasis

The body's ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world changes continuously.

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