Like begets like, In any population there will be some variation that is inheritable, Not all individuals reproduce, The individuals that reproduce best are determined by their variations
The four basic ideas of modern evolutionary theory
Recombination, gene flow, mutation
The three main sources of variation
The shuffling of the genetic material that occurs during meiosis
The most important source of variation in most populations
A change in the genetic make up of one cell
A change in the chemistry of the DNA molecule
Point mutation, change in chromosome number, change in chromosome structure
The three types of mutation
Having three of the same chromosome
The introduction of new genetic material into a population when new individuals move into a population
A long-term change in one or more characteristics of a population over successive generations
Anything (usually environmental factors) that cuts off gene flow
If two populations become different over time and become recognizably different from each other, then we can say that they have developed into different ___________ .
Bergmann's, Allen's, Gloger's
Three rules that pertain to conspecific endotherms
Conspecifics occurring in a colder climate tend to have a larger body size than that of a warmer climate
Conspecifics occuring in colder climates tend to have smaller extremities
Endotherms in colder climates will have darker colored fur/feathers
The development of a new species
A process in which two populations of a common ancestry become different from each other
A type of evolution that occurs in unrelated forms (not having common ancestry) where the groups become more and more similar to each other
Unrelated organisms that have similar roles in nature because of convergence
An animal's role in nature
Gradualism and punctuated equilibrium
The two basic ways that evolution occurs
A type of evolution that occurs gradually over time
Organisms exist relatively unchanged, but then undergo major changes very rapidly. Usually follows a cataclysmic event that necessitates rapid change
Microevolution and macroevolution
The two types of evolution
Very small evolutionary change (changes within a species)
Large evolutionary change (the development of new taxa)
Group Agnatha and group Gnathostomata
The two major groups of subphylum Vertebrata
The Agnathans appeared during the _____ period
Jaws and lateral fins
Distinct features of Gnathostomes
Currently there are only _____ extant species of Agnathans
The only extant class of Agnathans
Keep notochord, never develop a vertebral column, no lateral fins
Disadvantages of the Agnathans
Group of "true fishes". They have mouths with jaws
Series Pisces and series Tetrapoda
Two series of group Gnathostomata
Class Chondrichthyes and class Osteichthyes
The two classes within series Pisces
The class known as the "cartilaginous fish"
The class known as the "bony fish"
Class Chondrichthyes appeared (#) million years ago
There are (#) extant species in class Chondrichthyes
Class Osteichthyes appeared (#) million years ago
This class makes up the majority of "fish" species
Class Amphibia, class Reptilia, class Mammalia
The three classes within series Tetrapoda
The vast majority of fishes are _____ due to there being fewer __________ in the ocean.
Used by fish as the main source of propelling through the water
do not have
Agnathans (do have / do not have) scales
An animal in which the body temperature varies with the environmental temperature
An animal that is able to maintain/control a relatively constant body temperature
An animal whose main source of heat is internal
An animal whose main source of heat is external
Structures that have similar origin in the embryo
Structures that have similar function
Which class keeps their notochord for their entire lives?
Some of this series keep their notochord, but most develop a skeletal system
The part of the skull associated with the brain
Cyclostomes have a(n) (incomplete / complete ) cranium
Pisces have a(n) (incomplete / complete) cranium
A vertebral column is present only in which group?
A condition in which as the body develops, it consists of repetitious segments
The muscular system of fish is relatively ______
The muscular system of fish consists primarily of _______
True fishes have more ______ in their muscles than cyclostomes
How many chromosomes are there in a normal human?
How many pairs of chromosomes are there in normal male humans?
How many pairs of chromosomes are there in normal female humans?
Which animal is our closest relative?
How many chromosomes do chimpanzees have?
Ecotypes that have become elevated to the level of a taxon.
A fossilized human-like species that is thought to be in the sample species as humans, but it is different enough to be in a different subspecies
Homo sapiens neandertalensis
The subspecies for the Neandertal
Homo sapiens sapiens
The subspecies for humans
The vertebral column is an advantage because it adds a large _______ ____ to which muscles can attach.
All poikilotherms are (endotherms/ectotherms).
(Homeotherms/Poikilotherms) consist of both endotherms and ectotherms.
Homeothermy can be achieved internally and by through _______ behaviors.
Most fish scales are (analogous/homologous/both) to tetrapod scales. The others are (analogous/homologous/both).
What is the only group that has a vertebral column?