underweight may result in what?
low nutrient stores, low birth weight, and its a strong predictor of poor infant health.
low birth weight
an infant that weighs less than 5 1/2 lbs at birth (6.5 according to the lecture notes)
overweight may result in what?
gestational diabetes, difficult deliver, HTN, and increased risk of infant heart defects.
what are the support tissues (4)
placenta, umbilical cord, amniotic sac, circulatory system
what is the critical time period and why?
before the 4th week, the nueral tube closes
1st trimester nutrient needs?
no additional energy needs
2nd trimester nutrient needs?
additional 340 cal/day
3rd trimester nutrition needs?
additional 450 cal/day
is carbohydrate protein sparing?
pregnanct mothers need how much more protein than normal?
are high protein supplements safe?
pregnant women particularly have high needs for what nutrients?
folate, B12, vitamin D, Calcium, and Iron
weight can during pregnancy 1st trimester
weight can during pregnancy 2nd and 3rd trimesters
1lb per week
complications d/t gestational diabetes
high birth wieght infant and increase risk for child obesity and diabetes
substances to avoid during pregnancy
coffee, alcohol, medicinal drugs, herbal supplements and teas (raspberry and peppermint), excess vitamins and minerals, fish with high mercury content, and cigarette smoking (also second hand).
what will caffeine cause?
low birth weight
a pregnant women can get listeriosis from...
soft mex cheese, feta, brie, roquefort, raw milk, and raw/rare meat.
cigarette smoking causes..
damage to fetal chromosomes, and restricts blood supply to the fetus.
milk production healthy amount
500 mL/ 275 calories
does a decreased quantity of milk decrease the quality of the milk?
substances to avoid during lactation?
alcohol, caffeine, cigarette smoke, and medicinal drugs
infant needs how many cal/lb?
what are signs when infant is ready for introduction of solid foods?
able to sit with support, tongue is able to laterally transfer food, voluntary movement of tongue and lips
what is the age to introduce solids
what should be rich in infant food?
iron and vitamin C
iron deficiency impairs what in childhood?
learning ability and behavior
active 15 yo male needs how many calories
an inactive 15 yo female needs how many calories?
what is typically found in a breakfast?
vitC, vitA, riboflavin, Ca, Fe
drugs alcohol and cigarettes can affect
nutrient absorption and metabolism
obesity has a direct link with what?
diabetes, cerebral vascular disease, cancser, osteoarthritis,
vitamin and mineral insufficiency causes (6)
anemia, nerve damage, taste loss, osteoporosis, HTN, and brain damage
low fiber leads to what?
anti-oxident insufficiency causes?
omega 3 fatty acid insufficiency causes?
arthritis, alzheimers, and macular degeneration
energy needs decrease ___% per decade starting at ___ y.o.