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Bismarck

Prime minister of Prussia from 1862 to 1890

Army

Basis of Prussian strength

Prime Minister

Bismarck's official position

Kaiser

Title of the German emperor

Prussia

Dominant state in the new German union of 1867

Austria

Major rival of Prussia for German leadership

Papal

Italian states ruled by the pope

Sicily

Large island at the southern end of Italy

Rome

City ruled by the pope until 1870

Industrial

Economic base of northern Italy

Agriculture

Economic base of southern Italy

Mafia

Secret society formed by local strong men in Sicily

Austria

Dominant power of Central Europe

Hapsburgs

Ruling family of Austria

Hungary

Region that joined equally with Austria in 1867

Astro-Hungarian

the Dual Monarchy

nationalism

feeling of loyalty and patriotism toward a country, strong in Central Europe

Autocracy

Russian from of government under the tsars

serfdom

Institution abolished by the tsar in 1861

Emancipation

Freedom from serfdom

Assassination

Cause of Alexander's death

terrorists

Radicals who favored bombings and political killings

Berlin

Capital of the German Empire

Franco Prussian War

France's war against Prussia in 1870

Industry

Foundation of Germany's strong economy

socialist

Reformers strongly opposed by Bismarck

Franco Prussian War

Event engineered by Bismarck to make the southern German states allies of the north

Denmark

Northern country Prussia and Austria fought in 1864

Pope

The self-proclaimed "prisoner of the Vatican"

Rome

capital of the kingdom of Italy

Garibaldi

Leader who liberated southern Italy

two sicilie

Kingdom of the lower half of Italy

Red shirts

Garibaldi's army

Naples

Southern capital seized by Garibaldi and his army

Magyar

Majority population and language of Hungary

German

Dominant nationality and language of Austria

Ottoman Empire

Dominant power in the Balkans in the 1860s

The Sick Man of Europe

Nickname for the Ottoman Empire

Autocracy

The Ottoman type of government

Russia

Country that defeated the Ottoman Empire in 1878

Mediterranean

Russia wanted access to this sea

russiafication

Program that forced non-Russians to adopt Russian culture and customs

Pan-Slavism

Policy that favored the union of all Slavic peoples

Crimean War

War Russia fought against France, Great Britain, and the Ottoman Empire in 1855-56

Black Sea

Body of water that bordered the Crimea

field hospitals

the only real benefit of the Crimean War

Iron Chancellor

Bismarck's nickname, from is statement that he would unite Germany by "blood and iron"

German Confederation

Union of German states after the Congress of Vienna

7 week war

Prussia's brief 1866 war against Austria

North German Confederation

New union of German states established in 1867

Wilhelm 1

King of Prussia from 1861 to 1868 and German emperor as of 1871

Junkers

Conservative aristocratic landowners

Victor Emmanuel II

King of Sardinia and of Italy

Napoleon III

French ruler who allied his nation with Sardinia

Cavour

Prime minister of Sardinia who worked for Italian unity

France

Ally of Sardinia in its war with Austria

Austria

Major power that dominated a divided Italy

Mazzini

Leader of Italian unification movements before 1850

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