Microbiology: Chapter 16

26 terms by Bravo217 

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Archaea

group of prokaryotic and single celled microorganisms; similar to bacteria

Autotrophs

organisms producing energy

Bacilli

rod shaped bacteria

Bioremediation

using microbes to remove toxic materials in an environment

Chemoautotrophs

organisms which obtain energy from oxidation of chemicals and synthesizes organic compounds from carbon dioxide

Chemoheterotrophs

organisms requiring organic compounds for energy

Cocci

spherical shaped bacteria

Endospore

dormant, tough, non-reproductive structure which forms inside cell during periods of environmental stress; comparable to exospores or cysts in purpose

Endosymbiosis

any organism residing within another organism; many instances obligate

Endotoxins

toxic components of outer membrane found in gram negative bacteria

Exotoxins

toxins secreted by bacteria

Extreme halophiles

prokaryotic organisms which thrive in unusually saline conditions

Extreme thermophiles

prokaryotic organisms which thrive in unusually hot temperatures

Gram-positive bacteria

bacteria with a thick, simple cell wall comprised of peptidoglycan

Gram-negative bacteria

bacteria with a thin cell wall comprised of peptidoglycan along with an outer membrane containing lipopolysaccharides (LPS); usually pathogenic

Gram stain

empirical method of differentiating between bacteria based on cell wall composition

Heterotrophs

organisms consuming energy

Methanogens

prokaryotic organisms which thrive in conditions with unusually high concentrations of methane

Pathogens

infectious agent instigating disease in its host

Peptidoglycans

(murein), polymer of sugars and amino acids forming mesh-like layer in eubacteria cell walls

Photoautotrophs

organisms producing energy via photosynthesis

Photoheterotrophs

organisms producing energy via photosynthesis, yet rely on organic compounds for nutrition

Pili

hair-like appendage on surface of many bacteria used for conjugation and attachment to other cells

Proteobacteria

large group of bacteria categorized based on ribosomal RNA sequence; gram negative and many are obligatory anaerobic

Spirochetes

spiral shaped bacteria

Symbiosis

close and long term relationship between two different species

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