Praxis 2 Social Studies (0081) Sociology / Anthropology / Psychology

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praxis 2 high school social studies set, Sociology / Anthropology / Psychology

Social mobility

The ability of individuals to move from one social standing to another. Social standing is based on degrees of wealth, prestige, education and power.

Social Stratification

One of two components, together with agricultural surplus, which enables the formation of cities; the differentiation of society into classes based on wealth, power, production, and prestige

Socialization

The lifelong process by which people learn their culture and develop a sense of self.

Primary Groups

Social groups, such as family or friends, composed of intimate face-to-face relationships that strongly influence the attitudes and ideals of those involved, groups that provide members with a sense of belonging and affection.

Secondary Groups

Groups marked by impersonal, instrumental relationships (those existing as a means to an end)., groups that meet principally to solve problems

Folkways

Informal norms or everyday customs that may be violated without serious consequences within a particular culture, norms for routine or casual interaction.

Mores

The conventions that embody the fundamental values of a group, norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance.

Beliefs

Specific ideas that people hold to be true

Group Norms

Are rules that are designed to govern the behavior of the members. Are intended to integrate the actions of the group members. Are to reflect the appropriate behavior, attitudes, and perceptions of the the members. "Conformity and compliance are two intended purposes of instituting this in groups., guidelines that regulate how members act as well as how they interact with each other.

Values

Beliefs of a person or social group in which they have an emotional investment (either for or against something).

Laws

Enforceable rules of conduct in a society.

Conformity

Acting according to certain accepted standards, adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.

Deviance

A state or condition markedly different from the norm, behavior that departs from societal or group norms

Role

The actions and activities assigned to or required or expected of a person or group.

Positive Sanctions

Social approval for observing a norm, a reward or positive reaction for following norms, ranging from a smile to a prize.

Negative Sanctions

Social disapproval for violating a norm, a punishment or threat of a punishment to promote conformity to norms.

Institutions

The rules and procedures that provide incentives for political behavior, thereby shaping politics, organizations or activities that are self-perpetuating and valued for their own sake.

Group

Any number of entities (members) considered as a unit

Norms

Rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members, shared rules of conduct that tell people how to act in specific situations

Status

A person's condition or position in the eyes of the law; relative rank or standing, especially in society; prestige

Networks

A set of informal and formal social ties that links people to each other.

Social Solidarity

The state of having shared beliefs and values among members of a social group, along with intense and frequent interaction among group members.

Conflict

A state of opposition between persons or ideas or interests, an open clash between two opposing groups (or individuals).

Multicultural diversity

Unique characteristics of ethics groups

Ethnocentrism

Tendency to view one's own culture and group as superior to all other cultures and groups, belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group.

Sterotypes

A generalization,oversimplified view or opinion that members of a group rigidly apply to a thing,an idea,or another group.

Biases

An inclination for or against a person, place, idea or thing that inhibits impartial judgment., a prejudice towards one particular point of view or ideology.

Ideals

Beliefs of a person or social group in which they have an emotional investment (either for or against something), a principle or a way of behaving that is of a very high standard.

Cultural Relativity

The recognition that all cultures develop their own ways of dealing with the specific demands of their environments, the need to consider the unique characteristics of the culture in which behavior takes place.

Prejudice

A partiality that prevents objective consideration of an issue or situation, an opinion or strong feeling formed without careful thought or regard to the facts.

Pluralism

The doctrine that reality consists of several basic substances or elements.

Archaeology

Study of artifacts and relics of early mankind, the study of the remains of past cultures.

Antropology

Scientific study of humankind in all its aspects, especially human evolution, development, and culture, Studying the orgins and development of people and their society.

Physical Anthroplogy

Systematic study of humans and biological organisms

Cultural Anthroplogy

It is the branch of anthropology that examines culture as a meaningful scientific concept.

Enculturation

The process by which a society's culture is transmitted from one generation to the next and individuals become members of their society.

Social Stratification

One of two components, together with agricultural surplus, which enables the formation of cities; the differentiation of society into classes based on wealth, power, production, and prestige

Subcultures

Groups that share in some parts of the dominant culture but have their own distinctive values, norms, language, and/or material culture.

Dominant Cultures

Values, customs, and language established by the group or groups that traditionally have controlled politics and government in a society.

Cognitive Theory

Psychological perspective that focuses on mental processes: how people perceive and mentally represent the world around them and solve-problems.

Behavioral Psychology

A branch of psychology that focuses on observable actions, particularly stimulus-response methods.

Humanistic Psychology

Historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people; used personalized methods to study personality in hopes of fostering personal growth

Abnormal Psychology

The field of psychology concerned with the assessment, treatment, and prevention of maladaptive behavior.

Sigmund Freud

Austrian physician whose work focused on the unconscious causes of behavior and personality formation; founded psychoanalysis, 1856-1939; Field: psychoanalytic, personality; Contributions: id/ego/superego, reality and pleasure principles, ego ideal, defense mechanisms, psychoanalysis, transference.

Transference

The process whereby emotions are passed on or displaced from one person to another (psychoanalysis).

Carl Jung

1875-1961; Field: neo-Freudian, analytic psychology; Contributions: people had conscious and unconscious awareness; archetypes; collective unconscious; libido is all types of energy, not just sexual; Studies: dream studies/interpretation

Jean Piaget

1896-1980; Swiss developmental psychologist who proposed a four-stage theory of cognitive development based on the concept of mental operations

Ivan Pavlov

A Russian researcher in the early 1900s who was the first research into learned behavior (conditioning) who discovered classical conditioning.

B.F. Skinner

Pioneer of operant conditioning who believed that everything we do is determined by our past history of rewards and punishments. He is famous for use of his operant conditioning aparatus which he used to study schedules of reinforcement on pidgeons and rats., Studied observable behaviors rather than thought - reinforcement - rewarding good behavior.

Erik Erickson

Developmental Psychology: Psychosocial stage theory of development (eight stages)

Identity crisis

Distress and disorientation (especially in adolescence) resulting from conflicting pressures and uncertainty about and one's self and one's role in society.

Perception

Becoming aware of something via the senses

Social Cognition

Mental processes associated with people's perceptions of, and reactions to, other people.

Latent Learning

Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.

Classical Conditioning

A learning procedure in which associations are made between a natural stimulus and a learned, neutral stimulus.

Identity Formation

Erikson; stage of adolescence where teens are to develop a stable sense of self necessary to make the transition from dependence on other to dependence on oneself

Schizophrenia

Any of several psychotic disorders characterized by distortions of reality and disturbances of thought and language and withdrawal from social contact.

Dissociative Identity Disorder

A rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Also called multiple personality disorder.

Paranoid Personality Disorder

Type of personality disorder characterized by extreme suspiciousness or mistrust of others

Major Depressive Disorder

A mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminishes interest or pleasure in most activities (Most common psychologoical disorder in the United States).

Utopias

Reformers founded these ideal communities to realize their spiritual and moral potential and to escape from competition, communities designed to create perfect societies.

Reactionary Groups

Refers to viewpoints that seek to return to a previous state (the status quo ante) in a society. The term is meant to stand in opposition to and as one end of a political spectrum whose opposite pole is "radicalism".

Cultural Diffusion

The spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another.

Culture Clash

Is experienced when an individual experiences conflict between the beliefs, values and expectations of their primary culture and a new culture in which they must function.

Deindividualism

Abandoning normal restraints to the power of the group, doing together what we would not do alone

Prosocial Behavior

Positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior

Pluralistic Ignorance

A false impression of what most other people are thinking or feeling, or how they are responding

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

Is a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true, by the very terms of the prophecy itself, due to positive feedback between belief and behavior.

Ascribed Status

Social position a person receives at birth or involuntarily later in life

Split Brain

A condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them. Research states that the left hemisphere is responsible for spoken language.

Sensitive Development Period

Critical Period in development is a period of time which an organism typically needs to be exposed to a particular stimulus in order for proper development to occur.

Correlational Research

A research strategy that identifies the relationships between two or more variables in order to describe how these variables change together. One advantage is that it helps psychologists make predictions.

Negative Reinforcement

Increasing the strength of a given response by removing or preventing a painful stimulus when the response occurs. This technique is used to increase the frequency of behavior.

Habituation

A general accommodation to unchanging environmental conditions, decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation.

Punishment

An event that decreases the behavior that it follows.

Serial-Position Effect

A term coined by Hermann Ebbinghaus, refers to the finding that recall accuracy varies as a function of an item's position within a study list. When asked to recall a list of items in any order (free recall), people tend to begin recall with the end of the list, recalling those items best (the recency effect). Among earlier list items, the first few items are recalled more frequently than the middle items (the primacy effect).

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