Test #2 Psychology

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Swartwood Psychology

Children raise in the same family are not especially likely to have similar personalities; this most clearly implies that we should be cautious about attributing personality to:

Parental Influences

Compared with environmentally impoverished rats, those rats housed in enriched environments experienced a dramatic increase in the number of their:

Synapses

Kids choose peers who share their own attitudes and interest as their friends this best illustrates:

A selection effect

Personal space refers to:

The distance we like to maintain between ourselves and other people.

Children tend to organize their worlds into male and female categories this best illustrates their use of :

Gender Schemas

Lacking any exposure to language before adolescence a person will never master any language due to the __________ of unemployed neural connections.

Pruning

Which of the following represents the correct order of Piaget stages of cognitive development?

Sensorimotor, Preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational.

Incorporating new information into existing theories is to________as modifying existing theories in light of new information is to____________.

Assimilation, accommodation

If children cannot grasp the principle of conservation, they are unable to:

recognize that the quantity of substance remains the same despite changes in its shape.

Four year old Jennifer mistakenly believe that her mother would like to receive a toy doll as a Christmas present. This best illustrates Piagets concept of:

Egocentrism

Little Karen will approach and plan with unfamiliar animals only if her mother first reassures that it is safe to do so. This illustrates the adaptive values of:

Attachment

Even though smoking marijuana would reduce the pains associated with their chronic medical condition Juanita believe it would be morally wrong because it is prohibited by the law of her state. Kohlberg would suggest that Juanita demonstrates:

Conventional Stage: a stage of moral development in which the morality of an action is primarily determined by the extent to which it conforms to social rules

Despite huge legal coast and social disapproval Mr. Lambers refuses conscience will not allow him to support a government that spends billons of dollars on military weapons. Mr. Lambers reasoning best illustrates:

Post Conventional: Make decisions on OWN moral principles, or universal moral principles.

Freud's became interested in unconscious personality dynamics when he noticed that certain patients symptoms.

Made no neurological sense.

A psychotherapist interested in Dane to relax, close his eyes and state a loud whatever thoughts come to mind no matter how trivial or absurd.

Free Association

When two year old Matthew was told he would not get dessert until he fished the food on his plate he threw his plate on the floor in a temper tantrum Freud suggest that Matthew was unable to resist the demand of his:

i.d.

Ego is to id _______ is to________.

Reality principle; pleasure principle
(Ego: the part of the personality that is in touch with reality and strives to meet the demands of the id and the superego in socially acceptable ways) id(contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.)

When 16 year old Hartz received a large inheritance from his grandfather he was tempted to purchase an expensive new car. He decides instead, to deposit all the money into a savings account for his college.

Strong ego (The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain)

According to Freud the part of our personality that represents our sense of right and wrong and or ideal standards.

Super Ego

Freud referred to lingering focus of pleasure slurring energies at an earlier state is called:

Fixation

When she was 8 years old she was sexually abused by her uncle. She felt uncomfortable whenever she saw her uncle but was unable to understand why she felt that way.

Repression

4 year old Timmy had not wet his bed for over a year however he started bed-wetting again. What is this a sign of:

Regression

Abdul mistakenly believe classmates are unusually hostile in face, Abdul is the most quarrelsome and aggressive child in the school according to psychoanalytic:

Projection

Refusing to believe or even to perceive painful realities constitutes the defense mechanism know as:

Denial

John B Watson would have expressed the greatest of attempt to scientifically study weather.

Academic achievement is influenced by a positive self-concept.

Last year Dr. Marhona cleaned Natalia's skin by rubbing alcohol prior to administering each of series of painful rabies shots.

Classical conditioning
a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events

Pavlov experiments the dog salvation triggered by the taste of food.

Unconditioned response

In the Pavlov experiments the dog salivation triggered by the sound of the tone was:

Conditioned Response

If the tone caused the dog to salivate because it was regularly been associated with the presentation of food, the tone is called:

Conditioned Stimulus

Monica's psychotherapist reminds her so much of her own father what she has many of the same moved emotional reactions to hi that she has to her own dad, what do you call this:

Generalization

In which form of learning is behavior said to be influence by its consequences?

Operant Conditioning

Receiving delicious foods is to escaping electric shock as ______ is to ______.

Positive Reinforcer; Negative Reinforcer
(Postitive A stimulus such as a reward intended to get individuals to repeat desirable behavior.) Negative Reinforcer-A stimulus such as punishment intended to eliminate or reduce undesirable behavior.

Mason is a stock broker who runs two miles every day after work because it reduces his level of stress. Mason running habit is maintained by a _________ reinforcer.

Negative Reinforcer-a stimulus such as punishment intended to eliminate or reduce undesirable behavior.

Revoking the drivers license of a reckless driver is intended to serve as a:

Negative Punishment

The taste of food and relief from a headache are both what type of reinforcers?

Positive Reinforcer

Rats of operant responding are_______ fixed ratio than for fixed interval schedules that are ______ for variables schedule.

Higher, Higher
Fixed Ratio-a schedule where reinforcement happens after a correct number of responses, in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
Fixed interval-describes he schedule of reinforcement where a worker receives a paycheck every Friday.

The humanistic perspective emphasized the importance of:

Self determination

Which of the following is the correct order of Maslow's hierarchy of needs?

Physiological, safety, belonging, esteem, self-actualization.

Which theorist emphasized an attitude of total acceptance toward one another?

Carl Rogers: humanistic; Contributions: founded person-centered therapy, theory that emphasizes the unique quality of humans especially their freedom and potential for personal growth, unconditional positive regard, fully functioning person.

Coretta is quite pessimistic anxious and moody in terms of basic personality dimension she is:

unstable-introvert

What is spotlight effect?

The assumption that others pay more attention to our behavior & appearance than they actually do

The MMPI is an example of an:

Personality Inventory

A person who is careless and disorganized most clearly ranks low on a big five traits dimension.

Conscientiousness
The big 5 dimensions:
They are (1) extroversion, (2) agreeableness, (3) conscientiousness, (4) emotional stability, and (5) openness to experience.

The person situation controversy involves a debate regarding the influence of _______ and _______ on behavior.

Environment; Traits

Tendency for observers to underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the impact of personal depositions or another.

Fundamental attribution error-the tendency to see the person rather than the situation as the main cause of that person's behavior

How does role playing affect our attitudes?

Acting out the parts of important characters to dramatize feelings and practice new ways of relating to people.

Cognitive Dissonance

Inner tension that a consumer experiences after recognizing an inconsistency between behavior and values or opinions

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