Physics Pre-AP Final Exam

132 terms

How is Light created at the atomic level?

The atom's electron electric magnetic field vibrates

The answer on the test is going to be A, as Mr. Scales, so kindly told us....

What is the Electromagnetic Spectrum in oreder?

Radio Waves, Microwaves, Infared waves, Visible Light, Ultra Violet light, x rays, gamma rays

All velocities are variable except for:

The speed of light

What is Huygen's Principle?

Each point of a wave front acts as a new wave source.

ElectroMagnetic Spectrum ratios of frequency/wavelength

(Less Frequency/Bigger wavelength)/ (More frequency/smaller wavelength)

What is brightness when you have 5 times the original distance

I≈1/d² is the formula for brightness, so I≈1/(5)², and when you simplify it you get, I≈1/25

What is the relationship between incoming and reflected angles

Incoming and reflected light angles are equal

What happens with reflection at the atomic level?

The atom absorbs and reemits the light

Describe the image ray diagram in a plane mirror

d(original)=d(image) It has a virtual image due to apparent source of light ray

What are the Image characteristics of a concave mirror?

Magnifies and Image, converges light rays (mirror caves in)

Like a make-up mirror, a girl's best friend!

What are the Image characteristics of a convex mirror?

Reduces and image, Diverges light rays (Mirror curves out)

Like a security Mirror, that we occasionally catch ourselves looking in!

Concave

What are the three colors of Light?

Red, Blue, and Green

What are the three colors of Pigment?

Yellow, cyan, and magenta

What color is a banana in blue light?

Black (Banana is yellow(R&G) Blue light is on it so it is absorbing all three colors, so it's black)

"Does anyone have a banana and some blue light we can try it with???"

How many filters are needed to block out class light?

2

We held those little black plastic sheets up to the light and when you put two together it blocked the light, remember?

How many filters are needed to black out water glare?

1

Like Sunglasses!:) NOT KANYE GLASSES, they will not have the same effect... Sorry Mr. West.

refraction

What causes light to bend?

One side of wave changes speed first

What is the index of refraction?

Measure of speed of light changes in media due to its density

Diverging

Converging

Magnified

Reduced

Lens curvature affects what two things?

Magnification/reduction and focal length

What would you use to create total internal reflection?

Prisim and fiber optic cables

What is dispersion of a prism?

White light into different colors

What is the cause of a mirage?

Refraction caused by different air temperature and density

What are the two kinds of interference?

In phase and out of phase

What is the end result of the two kinds of interference?

Inphase=constructive(increase amplitude)
Out of Phase= destructive (decrease amplitude)

Which experiment creates and interference pattern?

twin slit experiment

What is diffraction?

light bending through a slit

How does diffraction grading create colors?

Constructive interference

diameter

What does coherent monochromatic mean?

1 wavelength, in phase

Digital binary

What are the two kinda of electric charge?

Positive (atoms loses electron) and negative(atom gains electron)

What is charge conservation?

for every positive there is a negative

Rubbing a baloon on hair is an example of?

charge transfer by contact

What makes a metal conductor conduct?

it has loose electrons

Why does a rubbed baloon pick up styrofoam peanuts?

Charged Polarization

What are the factors in determining force in columb's law?

Charge(Q),and DIstance(d)

Why does a Van de Graff have a curved dome instead of a sharp end?

So it has the maximum charge, instead of a leaking charge

How would you create electric potential energy?

Move the electron towards the negative side of the electric field.

IV

1.5 volts

12 volts

What is the US electric current?

120 volts

It's 220 volts in the rest of the world, like on the boats in New Zealand, where Mr. Scales is from..

How is a capacitator designed?

With 2 metal plates, one positive, and one negative

Dialectric

What is the electric current unit equivalent to?

1Amp= 1columb/ 1sec

What direction is the electric curent going?

+ --------> - (positive to negative)

What is the difference between electron drift velocity and electric field interaction?

Interaction between electric fields is very, very, fast.

(Mr.scales? What does that random "v" on the board mean? ummm well, it means very? actually it should be very very... Okay Mr.Scales)

What is the difference between AC and DC?

AC=electron changes direction(created by a generator)
DC=electron goes in one direction(created by battery)

What kind of wire is used to decrease resistance?

Thicker, shorter wire (like in a washing machine)

What kind of wire is used for maximum resistance?

a bulb filament (itty bitty wire)

What does V stand for? and what is it measured in?

Voltage, and it's measured in Volts

... duh Mr. Scales

What does I stand for? and what is it measured in?

Current, it's measured in Amps

What does R stand for, and what is it unit of measurement?

Resistance, and it's measured in Ohms

What is the electric power unit of measurement equivalent to Power=IV?

a Watt

Light(like lightbulbs are measured in watts) is knowledge, and Knowledge is power! :)

Why is electric current distributed at a high voltage?

Higher Voltage=Less resistance!

What are some characteristics of series circuits?

As the Number of bulbs in the circuit increases, Resistance increases.

If one bulb goes out, they all go out, (Not the best idea for a circuit... It's only as strong as it's weakest link!)

And Voltage divides.

What are some characteristics of paralell circuits?

As the Number of Bulbs increases, the amount of resistance decreases.

If one bulb goes out, the others all stay lit, (This is the better circuit plan to use! and that's why it's the brightest of all the circuits...)

I divides, (as in current divides, Not Me.)

Paralell

Which circuit has the largest voltage drop?

Parallel and a one bulb circuit
(he might have an answer choice that says something like, B and c or something along those lines... You never know what to expect with Gordon...)

Series circuit

Which has the most current throughout?

Single bulb circuit

Series

Amps and volts

What placement of magnets caused the iron shavings to repel? and which caused it to attract?

The NN magnets caused it to repel, and the NS magnets caused it to Attract

What is the difference between permomagnet and an electromagnet?

Permomagnet: atoms are aligned, (electrons spin)

Electromagnet: The electric current in wire is moving through(like when you rub a piece of magnetite on a needle repeatedly in the same direction, it makes the needle a temporary, or electomagnet.)

Sorry, there was no way to right this in a question form:/

Where is the magnetic field inside a solenoid?

A solenoid is a magnetic field located inside a wire loop

Does anyone remember studying this? Cause I sure don't....

What is the magnetic domain?

Then Magnetic domain is aligned iron atoms

How does the loudspeaker method work?

There is an interaction between permant and an electromagent

What makes the motion in an electric meter mechanism?

An electric motor

What is moved in wire to make electricity?

In wire, electrons being moved by magnetic field

When do you have enduced maximum velocity?

When the loop is parallel to the magnetic field

What is lens law?

Introducing current in a loop with a megnetic or another loop?

Farday's law, basically says that Induced Voltage is proportional to the number of loops (The # of loops is determined by the magnetic field strength(Which is The change in magnetic field))

What is the difference between AC vs DC generator construction?

Split ring vs Double ring

What is the US current?

120 volts, 55 hertz

How do you construct an electric motor?

Rotating wire loops between Magnets

What is a transformer used for?

Defeating evil, Go optimus prime! :D

Actually, It's used for transforming voltage.... Lame.

Loop Ratio

What does the input current create in a transformer?

Magnetism (Out put creates electricity)

What is the relationship between self induction and back EMF?

The result of self induction is less efficient than back EMF

What is Back EMF?

Back EMF is when a Magnetic field induces a new current

What does black body radiation and UV breakdown show?

It shows the light as a particle

What are light quanta/photons?

Specific quantity of energy/particle

In the formula E= hf what does E stand for?

E= energy of one photon at a frequency of f

In the formula E= hf what does h stand for?

Planck's Constant

6.63 X10^-34

What does the photoelectric effect do?

It shows light as a particle

Solar panels

hf= light energy

In the formula KE=hf-hfT, What does hfT stand for?

hfT=work function (energy to free electrons)

In the formula KE=hf-hf₇, what does f₇ Stand for?

fT=Treshold frequency of light

Describe the photo electric effect?

Light hitting metal atoms ejects electrons

What is the compton shift?

Photon wavelength decreases when it hits an electrons

What did Rutherford's experiment show?

Atoms are mostlty empty and radio activity can pass through atoms

What were they looking for in Rutheford's experiment?

They were looking for the Structure of atoms

What is the emission spectra?

ther amount of Light frequency emitted by atoms

They are equal

What did bohr's experiment show?

H emission spectra showed how electrons orbit

What is the dual nature in light and matter?

Light and matter are both wave and particle

What isn the uncertainty principle?

can't know both the position and the momentum of the electron

what is the mechanism fo conductors?

they have lose outer electrons

dope silicon

what are the semi conductors used for?

used for a transitor (switch)

what are diodes?

where current flows in 1 direction

how do diodes relate to AC and DC?

they change AC to DC

what does a transitor do?

amplifies the signal

what makes a super conductor so super?

it has no electric assistance

what are some characteristics of super conductors?

perfect crystal lattice

what is atomic # and atomic mass?

Atomic #: number of protons
mass #: protons plus neutrons

what does E equal in E=mc²?

E= atoms rest energy

What are neutrons?

Neutrons= strong nuclear force

protons

what is the cause of unstable nucleus, decay, and radio activity?

It is due to protons repelling!

What are the three types of radiation?

Alpha, Beta, Gamma...

......beginning and end, you're my savior messiah, redeemer and friend! You're my prince of peace and I will live my life for you!

Am I not the only one who sings this song when I hear these three types of radiation?... Maybe so.

What is Beta Decay caused by?

Weak Nuclear force

What is the result of Nuclear decay?

Ahhhh!!!! Mutant ninja turtles!!!!

What is nuclear fission?

a nuclear reaction in which a massive nucleus splits into smaller nuclei with the simultaneous release of energy

To heat water!

Stars

Quarks

What is the Evolution of the 4 fundamental forces?

1)Weak
2)Strong nuclear
3)Electromagnetic
4)Gravity

What is the evolution of atoms?

Energy --------> Quarks

What is antimatter?

When Protons are negative, and electrons are positive. (Opposite charges)

What is the general theory of relativity?

General theory= Special Theory+Gravity