# Population Ecology

### 34 terms by angela_mccavera

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Robins

Grasses

Elephants

585

### Assume there are 200 MendAliens living on an island in my back yard. If my island has an area of 20 hectares, what is the population density of MendAliens in terms of MendAliens per hectare? A. 4 MendAliens per hectare B. 4,000 MendAliens per hectare C. 0.1 MendAliens per hectare D. 200 MendAliens per hectare E. 10 MendAliens per hectare

10 MendAliens per hectare

Sharks

I and II only

Density

500

Clumped

### Uniform spacing patterns in plants such as the creosote bush are most often associated with A. Chance B. The random distribution of seeds C. Patterns of high humidity D. The concentration of nutrients within the population's range E. Competitive interactions among individuals in the population

Competitive interactions among individuals in the population

### Which of the following groups would be most likely to exhibit uniform dispersion? A. Red squirrels, who actively defend territories B. Moths in a city at night C. Dwarf mistletoes, which parasitize particular species of forest tree D. Lake trout, which seek out deep water E. Cattails, which grow primarily at edges of lakes and streams

Red squirrels, who actively defend territories

Life table

### Life tables are most useful in determining which of the following? A. Carrying capacity B. Reproductive rates C. Immigration and emigration rates D. The fate of a cohort of newborn organisms throughout their lives E. Population dispersion patterns

The fate of a cohort of newborn organisms throughout their lives

800

I, II, and III

### Demography is the study of A. Life expectancy of individuals within a population B. The survival patterns of a population C. Death and emigration rates of a population at any moment in time D. Reproductive rates of a population during a given year E. The vital statistics of populations and how they change over time

The vital statistics of populations and how they change over time

### Imagine that you are managing a large ranch. You know from historical accounts that wild sheep used to live there, but they have been extirpated. You decide to reintroduce them. After doing some research to determine what might be an appropriately sized founding population, you do so. You then watch the population increase for several generations, and graph the number of individuals (vertical axis) against the number of generations (horizontal axis). The graph will appear as A. An "S," increasing with each generation B. "J," increasing with each generation C. An upside-down "U" D. A diagonal line, getting higher with each generation E. An "S" that ends with a vertical line

A "J," increasing with each generation

### In the logistic equation dN/dt= rN (K-N) K, r is a measure of the population's intrinsic rate of increase. It is determined by which of the following? A. Dispersion B. Birth rate and death rates C. Density D. Carrying capacity E. Life history

Birth rate and death rates

rN

rN (K-N)
K

### As N approaches K for a certain population, which of the following is predicted by the logistic equation? A. The carrying capacity of the environment will increase B. The population will show an Allee effect C. The population will increase exponentially D. The growth rate will approach zero E. The growth rate will not change

The growth rate will approach zero

### Your friend comes to you with a problem. It seems his shrimp boats aren't catching nearly as much shrimp as they used to. He can't understand why because originally he caught all the shrimp he could handle. Each year he added a new boat, and for a long time each boat caught tons of shrimp. As he added more boats, there came a time when each boat caught somewhat fewer shrimp, and now, each boat is catching a lot less shrimp. Which of the following topics might help your friend understand the source of his problem? A. Density-independent population regulation and chance occurrence B. Pollution effects of a natural environment and learned shrimp behavior C. Density-dependent population regulation and intrinsic characteristics of population growth D. A K-selected population switching to an r-selected population E. Exponential growth curves and unlimited environmental resources

Density-dependent population regulation and intrinsic characteristics of population growth

### Carrying capacity is A. Fixed for most species over most of their range most of the time B. Seldom reached by marine producers and consumers because of the vast resources of the ocean C. The maximum population size that a particular environment can support D. Determined by density and dispersion data E. The term used to describe the stress a population undergoes due to limited resources

The maximum population size that a particular environment can support

### Which of the following can contribute to density-dependent regulation of populations? A. Floods B. Weather catastrophes C. Intraspecific competition for nutrients D. Earthquakes E. The removal of toxic waste by decomposers

Intraspecific competition for nutrients

### Why is territoriality an adaptive behavior for songbirds maintaining populations at or near their carrying capacity? A. Songbirds make improvements to the territories they inhabit so that they can all enjoy larger clutches and successfully fledged chicks B. Songbirds expend a tremendous amount of energy defending territories so that they spend less time feeding their young and fledgling mortality increases C. Songbird males defend territories commensurate with the size from which they can derive adequate resources for themselves, their mate, and their chicks D. Many individuals are killed in the ritualistic conflicts that go along with territorial defense E. Only the fittest males defend territories and they attract the fittest females so the best genes are conveyed to the next generation

Songbird males defend territories

Pyramid

Inverted pyramid

### Ignoring migration, the age structure diagram of a human population likely to maintain a relatively stable size will have what shape? A. Inverted pyramid B. Both a pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that remains stable in size C. A rectangle tapering toward the top D. Pyramid E. Both an inverted pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that remains stable in size

A rectangle tapering toward the top

Earthquakes

10 to 20 years

Example: