Ap World Modern/Dawn of Industrialization Era Questions

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1750ce - 1914ce

What was a new Western motive for overseas territorial expansion in the industrial era?

Need for raw materials for factory production

How did the Dutch gain control of Java?

Shrewd exploitation of existing political divisions on the Island resulted in territorial concessions

What rival European power did the British defeat in the eighteenth century in its drive to control the Indian subcontinent?

Portugual

What was NOT a reason India had become Britain's most important colony by about 1800?

India was an important location for British textile factories

What were some reasons India had become Britain's most important colony by about 1800?

1) India offered crucial port facilities for the British navy
2) India was a major outlet for British manufactured goods
3) India was an important supplier of British raw materials
4) Britain had lost the North American colonies

During the era of British colonialism in India, why were the British content, in general, to leave Indian social hierarchies intact?

British officials were able to, in essence, graft themselves onto an existing social pyramid at its apex while incurring a minimum of social disruption

In which area did British and Dutch colonialists in South Asia and Indonesia assimilate the fewest indigenous practices?

Religion

By what method did Western imperialists work to gain a dependable corps of local managers to aid in the administration of their colonies?

Conversion of local elites to Christianity
&
Education of new generations of colonized youth in Western languages and cultural practices

Which event highlighted widespread corruption and mismanagement among British East India Company administrators?

Famine in Bengal in the 1770s

Which reform was most emblematic of growing British interest in transforming Indian social relations in the nineteenth century?

Prohibition of sati

Who were the major rivals to British industrial and imperial supremacy that emerged in the second half of the nineteenth century?

The United States, Belgium, France, and Germany

What factors best describe international relations among the Western powers in the decades leading up to 1914?

Rivalry involving colonial spoils, arms races, and alliance formation

What regions were nominally independent but nonetheless endured significant Western informal political and economic influence by 1914?

China, Persia, the Middle East, and Latin America

What countries were considered contested settler countries?

Algeria, South Africa, Kenya, and Hawaii

What is generally true of indigenous individuals promoted to assist Western imperialists in their rule of the colony?

1) Christians were chosen when possible
2) Tended to be from minority ethnic groups
3) Were given limited Western education and technical training
4) Were barred from the very top supervisory rankings

What best characterizes the difference between educational systems set up by imperialists in Africa and India?

African schools tended to be set up by Christian missionaries while Indian ones were set up by the colonial state

What sector of the colonized economy had experienced the least expansion by 1914?

Heavy industrial capacity

The purpose of the Berlin Conference of 1885 was...

To negotiate settlements among Western rivalries over the partition of Africa

The India Congress Party's early membership consisted heavily of middle-class individuals, including M. K. Gandhi, trained in which profession?

Law

From what areas did the Industrial Revolution begin and spread?

Great Britain, continental Europe, United States

What ran counter to the democratic impulses associated with the American Revolution?

Continued centrality of slavery to the colonial socioeconomic order

What are the key events of the French Revolution in proper chronological order?

Formation of National Assembly, Reign of Terror, Directory, Rule of Napoleon

What documents spell out Enlightenment ideas as they were applied to revolutionary France?

Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

Which group emerged at the peak of French social status as a result of the French Revolution?

Bourgeoisie

What best characterizes the response of ruling elites in neighboring Western powers to the toppling of the French monarchy?

Military intervention

Historians estimate the numbers of victims in the Reign of Terror in roughly what figures?

Tens of thousands

What traditions of the French Revolution did not survive long beyond the initial and radical phases?

Women's leading role in toppling established political powers

Which nineteenth century political ideology stressed principles of laissez-faire and constitutional rule?

Liberal

What were the major political groupings in nineteenth century Europe?

Conservative, Liberal, and Radical

What Western societies escaped internal disturbances during the Revolutions of 1848?

Russia

Which of the Western societies expanded democratic rights in the first half of the nineteenth century but did not experience the mass upheavals of 1848?

Great Britain and The United States

What was NOT an influential political force in Europe by the late nineteenth century?

Absolute monarchy

What was an influential political force in Europe by the late nineteenth century?

1) Feminism
2) Social democracy
3) Socialism
4) Anarchism

What does NOT belong in a list of new responsibilities Western governments gained in the nineteenth century?

Minimum-wage regulation

What belongs in a list of new responsibilities Western governments gained in the nineteenth century?

1) Public education
2) Workplace safety regulation
3) Child labor regulation
4) Mass conscription

Who does NOT belong in a list of nineteenth and early twentieth century rationalist thinkers?

John Locke

Who belongs in a list of nineteenth and early twentieth century rationalist thinkers?

1) Karl Marx
2) Albert Einstein
3) Sigmund Freud
4) Charles Darwin

Among Western settler societies, which had emerged as the leading industrial power by 1914?

The United States

What factor did most to set the United States apart as unique within Western civilizations in the nineteenth century?

Persistence of racialized slavery

The rise of which industrial power in the decades leading to 1914 upset the established diplomatic and economic order among Western powers that had existed throughout much of the nineteenth century?

Germany

What best captures the changes historians associate with what is termed the "second industrial revolution"?

Central role of heavy industry and electrical power

Upon which demand would radicals and liberals have most likely agreed?

Expansion of voting rights

What causes did the American and French Revolution share?

Frustration over high levels of taxation
&
Resentment at exclusion from governmental decision making

What is a consequence and not a precondition of industrial development?

Organized labor union movement

Which thinker is most closely associated with formulating the theories of "Social Darwinism"?

Herbert Spencer

What group of formerly colonized nations gained political independence from Western colonialism in the nineteenth century?

Argentina, Mexico, and Brazil

What situation did formally independent Latin American nations have most in common with colonized portions of Africa and Asia in the nineteenth century?

A dependent position in the world economy due to the rise of Western industrial capitalism

What concern made Creole elites, who yearned for independence from Spain, what we might call "cautious revolutionaries"?

Fear that slaves and other oppressed groups would target local elites as part of a general social upheaval

After the United States, which was the next New World colony to gain independence from European power?

Haiti

Which event in Europe contributed most directly to the wave of independence struggle in early nineteenth-century Latin America?

Napoleon's invasion of Spain

Why was the struggle for Brazilian independence distinctive in Latin American history?

Brazil remained a monarchy after independence

Which social practices of the early United States were replicated in newly independent Spanish Latin America?

1) Slavery was maintained
2) Women remained subordinate to men
3) Property restrictions were placed on voting
4) Established colonial elites moved to the top ranks of political power

What is the best reason why rail networks were underdeveloped in Spanish Latin America at the time independence was achieved?

Rail technology was relatively new and limited to small areas of Britain, Western Europe, and the United States at the time

What impact did the instability of the wars for independence have on subsequent developments in Latin America?

Military leaders remained influential and intervened frequently in political affairs

What set of opposing political groupings would be most likely to disagree chiefly over the power of local versus national governments?

Centralists and Federalsits

What was the main commonality Liberal and Conservative politicians shared in nineteenth century Latin America?

Both were led by wealthy landowners and the urban middle to upper classes

What best characterizes relations between newly independent Latin American nations and British power in the mid nineteenth century?

British naval assistance in defense of Latin American independence in exchange for access to Latin American consumer markets and raw materials

What area of the Latin American economy was most damaged by free trade relations with the British?

Manufacturing

What does NOT belong in a list of the most important Latin American exports to the industrial West in the second half of the nineteenth century?

Gold

What belongs in a list of the most important Latin American exports to the industrial West in the second half of the nineteenth century?

1) Beef
2) Coffee
3) Grains
4) Guano

War with which Western power reduced Mexico's territory by about half?

The United States

What best characterizes the top priorities of the liberal regime of Mexican leader Benito Juarez?

Constitutional rule with reduced privileges for church and military elites

Which independent Latin American nation saw the defeat of the last unassimilated indigenous group willing to take up armed struggle to defend its autonomy?

Argentina

What Latin American nation attracted the greatest number of European immigrants in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries?

Argentina

What best characterizes the rule and impact of Porfirio Diaz in Mexico?

Sacrifice of liberal political principles in pursuit of industrial and infrastructural modernization

Where did U.S. influence expand most greatly as a result of the Spanish-American war?

Cuba and Puerto Rico

Which Latin American nation lost Panama to a U.S.- backed revolution after it refused to bend to U.S. demands in the construction of a canal there?

Colombia

In which Latin American nation did indigenous people play the most prominent political role during and after the winning of independence?

Mexico

What best characterizes Ottoman and Qing Chinese relations with the West by about 1750?

Qing China was able to strongly regulate relations with the West while Ottoman rulers were less able to repel Western incursions into their territorial waters

A long period of Ottoman territorial retreat ended with the birth of which modern nation?

Turkey

Initial expansion of Western-style university systems, communication methods, railways, and newspaper production and the promulgation of a European-style constitution are associated with which period in the history of the Ottoman Empire?

Tanzimat Reform era

The nineteenth century Egyptian political leader Muhammad Ali is best known for...

Determined but ultimately unsuccessful efforts to modernize Egypt's economy along Western lines

What made Egypt an attractive target for Western imperialist expansion in the late nineteenth century?

Construction and control of the Suez Canal

What does NOT belong in a list of policies generally followed by a rising Chinese dynasty?

Concentration of land ownership into ever fewer lands

What belongs in a list of policies generally followed by a rising Chinese dynasty?

1) Repair and expansion of dams, canals, and roads
2) Lowering tax burdens for the peasantry
3) Expanding opportunities for peasants to own land
4) Strengthening of civil service examination systems

What best describes China's trade relations with the rest of the world by about 1750?

Export of Chinese manufactured and luxury goods in exchange for silver

What does NOT belong in a list of nineteenth century challenges to the rule of the Qing dynasty in China?

Expanding influence of communism in China

What belongs in a list of nineteenth century challenges to the rule of the Qing dynasty in China?

1) Floods
2) Peasant rebellion
3) Foreign invasion
4) Corruption in the bureaucracy

What best captures the ruling Qing dynasty's attitude toward the West particularly in the period before the Opium Wars?

Western civilization was just another barbarian foreign society

What best explains the reason the British turned to trading opium in China?

British merchants could find no other commodity the Chinese needed

Land redistribution, reforms to simplify Chinese writing, equality for women, and armed struggle were major features of which pair of Chinese movements?

Taiping Rebellion and Communist

What does NOT belong in a group of nations that had achieved territorial concessions in China by 1914?

Italy

What belongs in a group of nations that had achieved territorial concessions in China by 1914?

1) Japan
2) Germany
3) Britain
4) France

What does NOT belong in a list of Chinese movements resentful of foreign domination?

Tanzimat Reform Movement

What belongs in a list of Chinese movements resentful of foreign domination?

1) Boxer Rebellion
2) May Fourth Movement
3) Chinese Communist Movement
4) Kuomintang (Nationalist) Movement

What is NOT a reason Chinese civilization suffered a more total collapse in the face of Western pressure than Muslim civilization had by 1914?

Muslims had faced conflict with the West since the birth of their religion and hence were more accustomed to it, while the shock of Western inference was more abrupt for the Chinese

What is are some reasons Chinese civilization suffered a more total collapse in the face of Western pressure than Muslim civilization had by 1914?

1) Muslims were not bound to defend a single state, while the Chinese destiny was linked to the survival of the Qing dynasty
2) Muslim civilization was concentrated in a more densely populated and urbanized manner and better suited to coastal or naval defense than the more rural and inland Chinese population
3) Muslims rulers were somewhat accustomed to exchange of knowledge with the West while the Chinese elites tended to view outsiders as barbarians one and all
4) Disparate Muslim peoples could unite around their faith while the Chinese lacked a similar homegrown universal religious tradition

What Chinese imperial bureaucrat wrote a famous letter to Queen Victoria demanding a cessation of British shipment of opium into China?

Pu Yi

How were Qing dynasty-era ethnic Han Chinese men forced to show respect for their Manchu rulers?

Each male sent his first daughter through a selection process for the imperial concubines

What traditional element of dynastic decline faced by the Qing dynasty in the late nineteenth century was most different from earlier instances of the same phenomenon?

Foreign invasion

What challenge to Manchu rule is least attributable to changes brought about by the emergence of the West as a global power and trade intermediary?

Yellow River floods of unprecedented devastation

What pair of regional powers were able, by 1914, to initiate substantial industrialization and resist Western domination?

Russia and Japan

What common trait helps to explain Russian and Japanese ability to modernize in the nineteenth century?

Extensive experience with cultural imitation, Russia imitating Byzantium and the West, Japan imitating China

What is NOT a reason monarchy survived so much longer in Russia than it did anywhere else in Europe?

The Romanov dynasty imitated the stable British model of constitutional monarchy

What are reasons monarchy survived so much longer in Russia than it did anywhere else in Europe?

1) The defeat of Napoleon in 1812 seemed to indicate a royal power could beat a modern one
2) Serfdom continued to provide a stable labor system
3) Czarist autocracy insulated Russia from the uprisings of 1830 and 1848 in much of Europe
4) Czars were able to mobilize enough industrial development to remain a world power

What decision by Russian czars was motivated by a long-held desire for a warm-water port and access to the trade of the Mediterranean Sea?

Launching the Crimean War

What is an accurate list of nineteenth century reforms carried out by Russian czars?

Establishment of zemstvos, construction of trans-Siberian railway, emancipation of the serfs

What was experienced by Russia and not Japan by 1914?

Mass revolutionary upheaval

What was the main reform put in place as a result of the 1905 Revolution in Russia?

A national representative assembly, the Duma, was created

In the decades leading to 1914, how were Japanese imperial designs for Asia and Russian imperial designs in Eastern Europe similar?

Each posed itself as the natural leader of a broader and ethnically similar mass of people
&
Both aimed at access to raw materials and/or consumer markets

How was the opening of Japan to the West different from other encounters between major civilizations and the West around the world in the period 1750-1914?

Japan was the only major civilization whose first contact with the West was with the United States

What was the role of the Meiji Restoration in Japanese history?

Launching of Japan on a course of modernization and westernization

What best describes the political system set up in Japan during the Meiji restoration?

Constitutional monarchy

How did industrial development in Japan and Russia tend to differ from similar processes in Western Europe and the United States?

Industrial development tended to be more state-directed

In which area did westernization of Japan have the least impact?

Religion

Why was the Russo-Japanese war a significant turning point in world history?

A non-Western power defeated a modern European power in battle

What nation pursued a course of overseas territorial expansion only after beginning the process of industrialization?

Japan

What region incorporated Western ideas in the nineteenth century but did not manage to achieve political independence from the West?

India

What best describes the initial method of British rule over its Indian colony?

East India Trading Company officials set up favorable relations for the British with local ruling elites

What inventor is most closely associated with the invention of the steam engine?

James Watt

Who was NOT an important figure in Latin America?

Emiliano Zapata

Who are some important figures in Latin American independence movements?

1) Agustin Iturbide
2) Miguel de Hidalgo
3) Simon Bolivar
4) Jose de San Martin

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