What was a new Western motive for overseas territorial expansion in the industrial era?
Need for raw materials for factory production
How did the Dutch gain control of Java?
Shrewd exploitation of existing political divisions on the Island resulted in territorial concessions
What rival European power did the British defeat in the eighteenth century in its drive to control the Indian subcontinent?
What was NOT a reason India had become Britain's most important colony by about 1800?
India was an important location for British textile factories
What were some reasons India had become Britain's most important colony by about 1800?
1) India offered crucial port facilities for the British navy
2) India was a major outlet for British manufactured goods
3) India was an important supplier of British raw materials
4) Britain had lost the North American colonies
During the era of British colonialism in India, why were the British content, in general, to leave Indian social hierarchies intact?
British officials were able to, in essence, graft themselves onto an existing social pyramid at its apex while incurring a minimum of social disruption
In which area did British and Dutch colonialists in South Asia and Indonesia assimilate the fewest indigenous practices?
By what method did Western imperialists work to gain a dependable corps of local managers to aid in the administration of their colonies?
Conversion of local elites to Christianity
Education of new generations of colonized youth in Western languages and cultural practices
Which event highlighted widespread corruption and mismanagement among British East India Company administrators?
Famine in Bengal in the 1770s
Which reform was most emblematic of growing British interest in transforming Indian social relations in the nineteenth century?
Prohibition of sati
Who were the major rivals to British industrial and imperial supremacy that emerged in the second half of the nineteenth century?
The United States, Belgium, France, and Germany
What factors best describe international relations among the Western powers in the decades leading up to 1914?
Rivalry involving colonial spoils, arms races, and alliance formation
What regions were nominally independent but nonetheless endured significant Western informal political and economic influence by 1914?
China, Persia, the Middle East, and Latin America
What countries were considered contested settler countries?
Algeria, South Africa, Kenya, and Hawaii
What is generally true of indigenous individuals promoted to assist Western imperialists in their rule of the colony?
1) Christians were chosen when possible
2) Tended to be from minority ethnic groups
3) Were given limited Western education and technical training
4) Were barred from the very top supervisory rankings
What best characterizes the difference between educational systems set up by imperialists in Africa and India?
African schools tended to be set up by Christian missionaries while Indian ones were set up by the colonial state
What sector of the colonized economy had experienced the least expansion by 1914?
Heavy industrial capacity
The purpose of the Berlin Conference of 1885 was...
To negotiate settlements among Western rivalries over the partition of Africa
The India Congress Party's early membership consisted heavily of middle-class individuals, including M. K. Gandhi, trained in which profession?
From what areas did the Industrial Revolution begin and spread?
Great Britain, continental Europe, United States
What ran counter to the democratic impulses associated with the American Revolution?
Continued centrality of slavery to the colonial socioeconomic order
What are the key events of the French Revolution in proper chronological order?
Formation of National Assembly, Reign of Terror, Directory, Rule of Napoleon
What documents spell out Enlightenment ideas as they were applied to revolutionary France?
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Which group emerged at the peak of French social status as a result of the French Revolution?
What best characterizes the response of ruling elites in neighboring Western powers to the toppling of the French monarchy?
Historians estimate the numbers of victims in the Reign of Terror in roughly what figures?
Tens of thousands
What traditions of the French Revolution did not survive long beyond the initial and radical phases?
Women's leading role in toppling established political powers
Which nineteenth century political ideology stressed principles of laissez-faire and constitutional rule?
What were the major political groupings in nineteenth century Europe?
Conservative, Liberal, and Radical
Which of the Western societies expanded democratic rights in the first half of the nineteenth century but did not experience the mass upheavals of 1848?
Great Britain and The United States
What was NOT an influential political force in Europe by the late nineteenth century?
What was an influential political force in Europe by the late nineteenth century?
2) Social democracy
What does NOT belong in a list of new responsibilities Western governments gained in the nineteenth century?
What belongs in a list of new responsibilities Western governments gained in the nineteenth century?
1) Public education
2) Workplace safety regulation
3) Child labor regulation
4) Mass conscription
Who does NOT belong in a list of nineteenth and early twentieth century rationalist thinkers?
Who belongs in a list of nineteenth and early twentieth century rationalist thinkers?
1) Karl Marx
2) Albert Einstein
3) Sigmund Freud
4) Charles Darwin
Among Western settler societies, which had emerged as the leading industrial power by 1914?
The United States
What factor did most to set the United States apart as unique within Western civilizations in the nineteenth century?
Persistence of racialized slavery
The rise of which industrial power in the decades leading to 1914 upset the established diplomatic and economic order among Western powers that had existed throughout much of the nineteenth century?
What best captures the changes historians associate with what is termed the "second industrial revolution"?
Central role of heavy industry and electrical power
What causes did the American and French Revolution share?
Frustration over high levels of taxation
Resentment at exclusion from governmental decision making
What is a consequence and not a precondition of industrial development?
Organized labor union movement
Which thinker is most closely associated with formulating the theories of "Social Darwinism"?
What group of formerly colonized nations gained political independence from Western colonialism in the nineteenth century?
Argentina, Mexico, and Brazil
What situation did formally independent Latin American nations have most in common with colonized portions of Africa and Asia in the nineteenth century?
A dependent position in the world economy due to the rise of Western industrial capitalism
What concern made Creole elites, who yearned for independence from Spain, what we might call "cautious revolutionaries"?
Fear that slaves and other oppressed groups would target local elites as part of a general social upheaval
After the United States, which was the next New World colony to gain independence from European power?
Which event in Europe contributed most directly to the wave of independence struggle in early nineteenth-century Latin America?
Napoleon's invasion of Spain
Why was the struggle for Brazilian independence distinctive in Latin American history?
Brazil remained a monarchy after independence
Which social practices of the early United States were replicated in newly independent Spanish Latin America?
1) Slavery was maintained
2) Women remained subordinate to men
3) Property restrictions were placed on voting
4) Established colonial elites moved to the top ranks of political power
What is the best reason why rail networks were underdeveloped in Spanish Latin America at the time independence was achieved?
Rail technology was relatively new and limited to small areas of Britain, Western Europe, and the United States at the time
What impact did the instability of the wars for independence have on subsequent developments in Latin America?
Military leaders remained influential and intervened frequently in political affairs
What set of opposing political groupings would be most likely to disagree chiefly over the power of local versus national governments?
Centralists and Federalsits
What was the main commonality Liberal and Conservative politicians shared in nineteenth century Latin America?
Both were led by wealthy landowners and the urban middle to upper classes
What best characterizes relations between newly independent Latin American nations and British power in the mid nineteenth century?
British naval assistance in defense of Latin American independence in exchange for access to Latin American consumer markets and raw materials
What area of the Latin American economy was most damaged by free trade relations with the British?
What does NOT belong in a list of the most important Latin American exports to the industrial West in the second half of the nineteenth century?
What belongs in a list of the most important Latin American exports to the industrial West in the second half of the nineteenth century?
What best characterizes the top priorities of the liberal regime of Mexican leader Benito Juarez?
Constitutional rule with reduced privileges for church and military elites
Which independent Latin American nation saw the defeat of the last unassimilated indigenous group willing to take up armed struggle to defend its autonomy?
What Latin American nation attracted the greatest number of European immigrants in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries?
What best characterizes the rule and impact of Porfirio Diaz in Mexico?
Sacrifice of liberal political principles in pursuit of industrial and infrastructural modernization
Where did U.S. influence expand most greatly as a result of the Spanish-American war?
Cuba and Puerto Rico
Which Latin American nation lost Panama to a U.S.- backed revolution after it refused to bend to U.S. demands in the construction of a canal there?
In which Latin American nation did indigenous people play the most prominent political role during and after the winning of independence?
What best characterizes Ottoman and Qing Chinese relations with the West by about 1750?
Qing China was able to strongly regulate relations with the West while Ottoman rulers were less able to repel Western incursions into their territorial waters
Initial expansion of Western-style university systems, communication methods, railways, and newspaper production and the promulgation of a European-style constitution are associated with which period in the history of the Ottoman Empire?
Tanzimat Reform era
The nineteenth century Egyptian political leader Muhammad Ali is best known for...
Determined but ultimately unsuccessful efforts to modernize Egypt's economy along Western lines
What made Egypt an attractive target for Western imperialist expansion in the late nineteenth century?
Construction and control of the Suez Canal
What does NOT belong in a list of policies generally followed by a rising Chinese dynasty?
Concentration of land ownership into ever fewer lands
What belongs in a list of policies generally followed by a rising Chinese dynasty?
1) Repair and expansion of dams, canals, and roads
2) Lowering tax burdens for the peasantry
3) Expanding opportunities for peasants to own land
4) Strengthening of civil service examination systems
What best describes China's trade relations with the rest of the world by about 1750?
Export of Chinese manufactured and luxury goods in exchange for silver
What does NOT belong in a list of nineteenth century challenges to the rule of the Qing dynasty in China?
Expanding influence of communism in China
What belongs in a list of nineteenth century challenges to the rule of the Qing dynasty in China?
2) Peasant rebellion
3) Foreign invasion
4) Corruption in the bureaucracy
What best captures the ruling Qing dynasty's attitude toward the West particularly in the period before the Opium Wars?
Western civilization was just another barbarian foreign society
What best explains the reason the British turned to trading opium in China?
British merchants could find no other commodity the Chinese needed
Land redistribution, reforms to simplify Chinese writing, equality for women, and armed struggle were major features of which pair of Chinese movements?
Taiping Rebellion and Communist
What does NOT belong in a group of nations that had achieved territorial concessions in China by 1914?
What belongs in a group of nations that had achieved territorial concessions in China by 1914?
What does NOT belong in a list of Chinese movements resentful of foreign domination?
Tanzimat Reform Movement
What belongs in a list of Chinese movements resentful of foreign domination?
1) Boxer Rebellion
2) May Fourth Movement
3) Chinese Communist Movement
4) Kuomintang (Nationalist) Movement
What is NOT a reason Chinese civilization suffered a more total collapse in the face of Western pressure than Muslim civilization had by 1914?
Muslims had faced conflict with the West since the birth of their religion and hence were more accustomed to it, while the shock of Western inference was more abrupt for the Chinese
What is are some reasons Chinese civilization suffered a more total collapse in the face of Western pressure than Muslim civilization had by 1914?
1) Muslims were not bound to defend a single state, while the Chinese destiny was linked to the survival of the Qing dynasty
2) Muslim civilization was concentrated in a more densely populated and urbanized manner and better suited to coastal or naval defense than the more rural and inland Chinese population
3) Muslims rulers were somewhat accustomed to exchange of knowledge with the West while the Chinese elites tended to view outsiders as barbarians one and all
4) Disparate Muslim peoples could unite around their faith while the Chinese lacked a similar homegrown universal religious tradition
What Chinese imperial bureaucrat wrote a famous letter to Queen Victoria demanding a cessation of British shipment of opium into China?
How were Qing dynasty-era ethnic Han Chinese men forced to show respect for their Manchu rulers?
Each male sent his first daughter through a selection process for the imperial concubines
What traditional element of dynastic decline faced by the Qing dynasty in the late nineteenth century was most different from earlier instances of the same phenomenon?
What challenge to Manchu rule is least attributable to changes brought about by the emergence of the West as a global power and trade intermediary?
Yellow River floods of unprecedented devastation
What pair of regional powers were able, by 1914, to initiate substantial industrialization and resist Western domination?
Russia and Japan
What common trait helps to explain Russian and Japanese ability to modernize in the nineteenth century?
Extensive experience with cultural imitation, Russia imitating Byzantium and the West, Japan imitating China
What is NOT a reason monarchy survived so much longer in Russia than it did anywhere else in Europe?
The Romanov dynasty imitated the stable British model of constitutional monarchy
What are reasons monarchy survived so much longer in Russia than it did anywhere else in Europe?
1) The defeat of Napoleon in 1812 seemed to indicate a royal power could beat a modern one
2) Serfdom continued to provide a stable labor system
3) Czarist autocracy insulated Russia from the uprisings of 1830 and 1848 in much of Europe
4) Czars were able to mobilize enough industrial development to remain a world power
What decision by Russian czars was motivated by a long-held desire for a warm-water port and access to the trade of the Mediterranean Sea?
Launching the Crimean War
What is an accurate list of nineteenth century reforms carried out by Russian czars?
Establishment of zemstvos, construction of trans-Siberian railway, emancipation of the serfs
What was the main reform put in place as a result of the 1905 Revolution in Russia?
A national representative assembly, the Duma, was created
In the decades leading to 1914, how were Japanese imperial designs for Asia and Russian imperial designs in Eastern Europe similar?
Each posed itself as the natural leader of a broader and ethnically similar mass of people
Both aimed at access to raw materials and/or consumer markets
How was the opening of Japan to the West different from other encounters between major civilizations and the West around the world in the period 1750-1914?
Japan was the only major civilization whose first contact with the West was with the United States
What was the role of the Meiji Restoration in Japanese history?
Launching of Japan on a course of modernization and westernization
What best describes the political system set up in Japan during the Meiji restoration?
How did industrial development in Japan and Russia tend to differ from similar processes in Western Europe and the United States?
Industrial development tended to be more state-directed
Why was the Russo-Japanese war a significant turning point in world history?
A non-Western power defeated a modern European power in battle
What nation pursued a course of overseas territorial expansion only after beginning the process of industrialization?
What region incorporated Western ideas in the nineteenth century but did not manage to achieve political independence from the West?
What best describes the initial method of British rule over its Indian colony?
East India Trading Company officials set up favorable relations for the British with local ruling elites