Who is most responsible for the rather narrow view of psychology held by the majority of the population?
Psychologists who study the role of the brain in psychological processes have adopted the ________ perspective.
Which perspective of psychology most clearly focuses on how we learn observable responses?
In his practice, Dr. Wagner stresses his clients' unconscious processes as well as their unresolved conflicts. Dr. Wagner adheres to the _______ approach.
The specialist most likely to have a medical degree is a
D: CAN PRESCRIBE MEDICATION
Jean is a psychologist who studies the changes that take place in people over the course of their lifespans. Jean most likely specializes in ______ psychology
What does the size of a correlation coefficient indicate?
B: STRENGTH OF THE RELATIONSHIP
If you find no relationship between two variables, what is the correlation coefficient?
In scientific research, the group which receives treatment is called the _______ group.
In experimental research, the group which receives no treatment is called the _______ group.
An experimenter wants to study the relationship between caffeine and reaction time. She assigns participants as follows: Group One receives 100mg of caffeine; Group Two receives 200mg of caffeine, Group Three receives 300mg of caffeine, and Group Four receives no caffeine. Twenty minutes later, all participants complete the reaction-time test. Which group is the control group?
A: GROUP FOUR
The placebo effect refers to the
C: FINDING THAT PEOPLE FEEL BETTER SIMPLY BECAUSE THEY BELIEVE THEY ARE RECEIVING MEDICATION.
In a double-blind experiment,
C: NEITHER RESEARCHERS NOR PARTICIPANTS KNOW WHO IS IN THE CONROL OR EXPERIMENTAL GROUP
The ability for nerve cells in the brain to change their purpose demonstrates what capacity of the brain?
Which of the following are the two integrated parts of the autonomic nervous system?
A: SYMPATHETIC AND PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEMS
The physical space between two neurons is called the
Neurotransmitters are stored in
C: TERMINAL BUTTONS
Magnetic resonance imaging is a technique that works by
D: DETECTING AND INTERPRETING MAGNETIC ACTIVITY FROM HYDROGEN LEVELS IN THE BLOOD.
Which subpart of the brain is located at the rear base of the skull?
The iron rod which damaged Phineas Gage's frontal lobe resulted in
D: CHANGES IN PERSONALITY
When you see the bright color and round shape of a tomato on the vine in your vegetable garden, smell its sun-warmed fragrance, hear the buzzing of a nearby bee, feel the velvety texture of its skin, and taste the flavor as you bite into it, your process of receiving this stimulus energy from the environment is called
You cannot feel the waistband of your underwear, even though you know it is there. This is the result of
A: SENSORY ADAPTATION
Near the center of the retina there is a spot where there are no rods and no cones. This spot exists because of
C: THE OPTIC NERVE
Afterimages refer to
B: THE SENSATION LEFT OVER AFTER AN IMAGE IS REMOVED
Objects that resemble one another are often perceived as a group. This is the perceptual principle of
Perceiving three dimensions is called
A: DEPTH PERCEPTION
Which depth cue accounts for why parallel lines appear to grow closer together the farther away they are?
D: LINEAR PERSPECTIVE
States of consciousness that require little attention and do not interfere with other activities are called
B: AUTOMATIC PROCESSES
Jet lag may be explained by
D: THE AFFECT OF TIME SHIFTS IN YOUR CIRCADIAN RYTHEM
Kevin suffers from sleep apnea. With this condition, he reawakens as often as 500 times during the night due to
D: A LACK OF OXYGEN
The need to take increasing amounts of a drug in order to get the same effect is referred to as
Generally, if you feel very relaxed or drowsy after taking a drug, it is likely that the drug is a
The most widely used stimulants are
D: CAFFEINE AND NICOTINE
In terms of states of consciousness, hypnosis involves an
D: UNCONSCIOUSNESS SIMILAR TO THE STATE OF DEEP SLEEP
Any situation that involves learning
A: REQUIRES SOME RELATIVELY PERMANENT CHANGE TO OCCUR
Pavlov's dog salivated each time food was presented. Salivation in this situation was the
A: UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE
You are surprised to discover that classical conditioning can produce immunosuppression. The original discovery of this phenomenon involved rats, but more recent studies indicate that immunosuppression may also occur in humans. This means that
A: ENVIRONMENTAL TRIGGERS MAY BE ABLE TO SHUT-DOWN OUR IMMUNE SYSTEMS
In operant conditioning
A: THE CONSEQUENCES OF BEHAVIOR PRODUCE CHANGE IN THE PROBABILITY OF THE OCCURRENCE OF THE BEHAVIOR
If, through experience, you come to the conclusion that all things are beyond your control and therefore you should not even try, you are exhibiting
A: LEARNED HELPLESSNESS
Tolman demonstrated that rats can learn to run a maze correctly even though they were never reinforced for successfully running through it. This demonstrated the phenomenon of
A: LATENT LEARNING
On Monday, Rat A receives 25 shocks an hour and Rat B receives 5 shocks per hour. On Tuesday, both rats receive 10 shocks per hour. Which rat is likely to experience more stress on Tuesday
B: RAT B
Jacob is a server in a fancy restaurant. He takes orders without writing anything down. Which memory process does he use first?
A: SELECTIVE ATTENTION
You most likely store the seven digit phone number from your previous address in _______ memory.
Talking to people about what you have learned is a form of
You decide to go to a hypnotist to try to stop smoking. The hypnotist asks you to remember what it was like before you started smoking. Which memory system will you use to comply with this request?
The activation of information that a person already has in storage is referred to as
Although you had never been to the Fancy Foods Restaurant in your town, you were not at all surprised when the hostess seated you, handed you the menu, and informed you that your server would soon take your dinner order. Sure enough, a man in a tuxedo came to your table and asked you what you would like to eat. You knew all of this was going to happen at the restaurant because you
B: HAVE A SCRIPT FOR WHAT HAPPENS IN A RESTAURANT
A preexisting mental concept or framework that helps people organize and interpret information is referred to as a
When the field of cognitive psychology first became prominent, it was considered a revolutionary development because it was a radical departure from
Who would benefit from making subgoals?
C: TODD HAS TO COMPLETE A SCIENCE FAIR PROJECT
Who would benefit from making subgoals?
C: SUKI HAS TO READ A CHAPTER IN HER SOCIOLOGY TEXTBOOK
Which activity probably requires mindfulness?
D: STUDYING PSYCHOLOGY
The concept of ________ is best defined as the ability toe do well on cognitive tasks, to solve problems, and to learn from experience.
You have been asked to review a set of test items that are being considered for a standardized intelligence test. The test constructors want to eliminate all items that contain any possible cultural bias. With this task in mind, which of the following questions would you eliminate first?
C: WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE MAIN CHARACTER IN WIZARD OF OZ?
The new term for "mental retardation" is
A: INTELECTUAL DISABILITY
________ is a person's ability to recover from or adapt to difficult times.
What technique in studying infant perception involves looking for a reliable preference for one stimulus over another?
B: PREFERENTIAL LOOKING
Which psychologist articulated the steps of cognitive development from infancy to adulthood?
Richie's parents place no demands on him, and they place no rules or restrictions on his behavior. They are exhibiting a _________ parenting style.
The main class of male sex hormones is
Danette is a teenager who knows that she is not at all like her parents. She could never be like them. She is her own unique person. Her style of dress, mannerisms, and language emphasize her uniqueness. According to Erikson, Danette is attempting to establish
Which of the following theories was developed to address the narrowing of social contacts and the increase in positive emotion that occur with age?
D: SOCIOEMOTIONAL SELECTIVITY THEORY
Whenever Olivia sees a television commercial concerning food, she goes to the kitchen looking for something to eat. If you wanted to study Olivia's behavior, you would most likely conduct research in the area of
A thermostat in your house is a good analogy for
According to the Yerkes-Dodson Law, optimum performance is achieved when one is
C: MODERATELY ANXIOUS
What happens when you blood sugar levels gets too low
B: YOU FEEL HUNGRY
All of the following are associated with anorexia EXCEPT
C: BINGING AND PURGING
From Maslow's perspective, motivation is primarily the result of
D: SATISFYING THE BASIC NEEDS BEFORE MOVING TO THE HIGHER NEEDS
The Cannon-Bard theory predicts that after witnessing a shocking event, a person will
D: EXPERIENCE PHYSICAL AND EMOTIONAL REACTIONS SIMULTANEOUSLY
_______ focus on the role of the unconscious mind in personality.
B: PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORISTS
When peter is not biting his nails, he is chewing on a pencil. Freud would argue that Peter is fixated at the ______ stage.
According to Horney, women might envy the penis but what they really want is
B: THE STATUS BESTOWED TO THOSE WHO HAVE ONE
Emotionally laden ideas and images that have rich and symbolic meaning for all people are
Adler believed that birth order
C: WAS IMPORTANT TO PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT
According to research on personality, individuals between the ages of 17 and 24 become
B: MORE RESPONSIBLE
Professor Jenkins is interested in whether or not people respond differently to interview questions posed by a single person versus a group of interviewers. His area of expertise lies in _______ psychology.
"Am I as popular as Cathy?" This question is an example of gaining self-knowledge through the process of
D: SOCIAL COMPARISON
Altruism is to _______ as egoism is to _______.
B: RECIPROCITY; ANTISOCIAL
The term "risky shift is used to describe the tendency to
D: ENDORSE RISKIER DECISIONS WHEN IT IS A GROUP RATHER THAN A PERSONAL DECISION.
Which of the following is NOT a reason why people prejudice?
D: IN-BORN TENDENCIES
Susan drives bey a particularly unusual apartment building each day on her way to and from work. Initially, she does not think much of the structure and actually has a mild dislike for it. However, after several months of commuting, she starts to like the apartment building and is even considering trying to rent an apartment there. This change in Susan's feelings about the building best demonstrates
C: THE MERE EXPOSURE EFFECT.
Which of the following is NOT considered one of the criteria for defining abnormal behavior?
C: UNIQUE BEHAVIOR
Which axis on the DSM-IV addresses the current level of functioning of the individual who has been diagnosed with a mental disorder?
The main controversy surrounding the DSM-IV-TR is that it
D: REFLECTS THE MEDICAL MODEL
John has sudden attacks of intense fear, in which his heart races, he feels faint, and he has trouble catching his breath. During these attacks, he worries that he is going to die. From this description, it sounds like John has
C: PANIC DISORDER
Jerome was about to get into his car when he heard gun shots and saw his neighbor come stumbling out her front door with blood all over her. Since then Jerome has had a very difficult time concentrating at work, has been experiencing flashbacks, and has had several aggressive outbursts at home. Jerome may be suffering from
C: POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER
An optimistic attribution style has been related to _______ levels of depression and _________ risk of suicide.
D: LOWER, DECREASED
Psychotherapeutic drugs are primarily used to treat
D: ALL OF THESE
Josie went to a psychoanalyst but found his style too cold and uninvolved. She wanted a therapist with whom she could have more of a relationship. She switched to a Rogerian therapist. The therapeutic setting is now one of
C: WARMTH AND ACCEPTANCE
Beck's cognitive therapy focuses on
A: ELIMINATING ILLOGICAL AND SELF-DEFEATING THOUGHTS
Dr. Houltin is a therapist who believes that it is important for clients to share information and provide feedback to each other. Dr. Houltin is practicing ________ therapy.
A major advantage to group therapy is that clients
A: HAVE MORE OPPORTUNITY TO DEVELOP SOCIAL SKILLS
In family therapy, getting the family to acknowledge that the problem is a family problem and not just the problem of one individual is called
Who is most likely going to achieve their desired weight loss?
C: STAN WANTS TO MAKE THE TRACK TEAM
If the body's all-out effort to combat stress fails and the stress persists, the individual moves into the _______ stage of the GAS.
The body system that plays the greatest role in Selye's GAS is called the
Which of the following statements is NOT one of the preliminary hypotheses in regards to the relationship between stress and the immune system?
B: STRESS DIRECTLY PROMOTES DISEASE-PRODUCING PROCESSES.
An _______ activity is defined as one that increases heart rate and lung functioning.
Aerobic exercise is defined as
D: SUSTAINED EXERCISE THAT STIMULATES HEART AND LUNG CAPACITY.