7 Written Questions
6 Multiple Choice Questions
- Ford tried to continue the policy of détente after Nixon, but the Soviets had invaded Afghanistan. In response, the US boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow and cut off grain sales. When Gorbachev was elected, he promised reforms and was willing to meet with US presidents. Tensions eased as the Soviet Union entered a period of glasnost and perestroika (openness and reform).
- US had loaned $10 billion to allies during WWII. Allied nations paid for the debt by collecting reparations from Germany. Germany couldn't keep up with the payments, which led to discontent (unhappiness) in Germany and allowed a leader like Hitler to become popular.
- Rosa Parks started it all when she refused to give up her seat for a white person. This event kicked off the Montgomery Bus Boycott and allowed MLK to become a major civil rights leader. Some highlights of the movement were the Brown v. Board of Education decision, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and the March on Washington. Their tactics are considered non-violent forms of protests, which took the form of sit-ins, freedom rides, and marches.
- The US strategy towards Communism was containment. In Korea, the North wanted to communism, but the South did not. In order to keep communism contained, the US helped S. Korea. After years of fighting, the countries agreed to keep Korea split between Communist North and Non-Communist South. In Vietnam, the US tried to stop the spread of Communism because they believed that if South Vietnam fell, then the rest of South East Asia would. They sent supplies, trained soldiers, and sent money. Then US ships were attacked at the Gulf of Tonkin which made them get directly involved. After a decade of fighting, the US withdrew and the Vietminh reunited the country under Communism.
- The allies attacked Germany from all sides. The bad weather during the German invasion of the Soviet Union also weakened the German army, but the strategy was to surround and close-in on Germany.
- Containment is the US foreign policy during the Cold War that sought to prevent the expansion of Soviet Communism. The main cause of the Cold was that the Soviet Union wanted to spread Communism, especially in Eastern Europe and Asia after the Nazi and Japanese empires fell.
6 True/False Questions
What were the ways that African Americans were prohibited from voting? What were the legal ways for first giving African Americans the right to vote and protecting it later (Includes Acts and Amendments)? → African Americans were prohibited from voting with literacy tests (which were questions asked mostly to Black Americans about very specific parts of the Constitution), poll taxes (a charge to vote meant to stop the poorest from voting), and the grandfather clause (only those whose grandparents were legally allowed to vote would currently be allowed to vote). The 15th Amendment first gave African Americans the right to vote, but was strengthened in the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (which made voter registration a federal, not a local, issue), and the 24th Amendment (which banned polled taxes in federal elections).
***List in chronological order the presidents from 1968-2000 (Use week twelve notes for more information on Nixon). Why was each president elected? → (1968-1974) Nixon- promised things the Southerners would like and got the support of the middle-class Silent Majority. (1974-1977) Ford- became president when Nixon resigned. (1977-1981) Carter- Won the election because he was an outsider. He wasn't involved with any of the troubles in Washington. (1981-1988) Reagan- Accused Carter of being a weak leader; Carter was very unpopular. (1988-1992) Bush- won because the Democrats were disorganized. He was the VP to the very popular Reagan. (1992-2000) Clinton- Called for government renewal. Very charming during the campaign. He was reelected because he was able to be an effective Democratic president working with Congress.
What did JFK and LBJ want to fix with their New Frontier and Great Society? What did they achieve? What limited their success? → The New Frontier refers to Kennedy's domestic policy. He hoped to fix high unemployment and inflation, while helping the disadvantaged. JFK was killed before he could accomplish much. Johnson's Great Society was a plan for America to be a place without poverty and racial injustice. He focused on poverty, healthcare, education, and civil rights. He was immensely successful. His most lasting impact was Medicare, Medicaid, HeadStart, VISTA, and Civil Rights Act of 1964 (which prohibited discrimination based on race or color). He met some resistance from the Republican controlled Congress.
Who was General McArthur? With what region of the world is he most closely identified? What was his role in Japan after? → General MacArthur was the commander of the US troops in the Pacific during WWII. He is identified with the Pacific region, especially Japan. His role after the war was that he helped rebuild the entire nation of Japan.
What was the US foreign policy after WWI (not WWII)? Why did America follow this policy? → The significance of the Battle of the Bulge was that the Allies had beaten Germany's final offensive of WWII. Allies could then defeat Germany and end the Western (European) front of the war.
How did the Allies defeat Japan? Why were Iwo Jima and Okinawa important for this strategy? → The allies pursued an island-hopping strategy in order to weaken Japanese defense. The islands of Iwo Jima and Okinawa were islands close enough to the mainland Japan to launch a land/water (amphibious) assault.