Bethel School District v. Fraser
School officials can punish a student for statements made in a speech at school
Barron v. Baltimore
The Bill of Rights only applied to actions by the federal government, not the states.
Bowers v. Hardwick
Consensual homosexual acts performed in a person's home are not protected under the constitutional right of privacy.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
The "separate but equal" doctrine as it applies to public education is unconstitutional; separate schools are inherently unequal.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka II
Desegregation plans to be developed by local school boards with oversight by federal district courts; desegregation to proceed with "all deliberate speed."
Buckley v. Valeo
Upheld the limits on individual contributions to political campaigns in federal election provided for in the 1974 amendments to the Federal Election Campaign Act, but declared unconstitutional the limits on expenditures as well as limits on what an individual could contribute to his/her own campaign.
Chaplinksy v. New Hampshire
"Fighting words" that are likely to provoke a hostile response are not protected under the First Amendment.
Escobedo v. Illinois
Statements made by a murder suspect are thrown out because the police prevented him from meeting with his attorney and he was not told about his rights to remain silent
Furman v. Georgia
The arbitrary application of the death penalty constituted cruel and unusual punishment; the decision leads to a moratorium on the death penalty until state legislatures rewrite their capital punishment statutes.
Gibbons v. Ogden
The decision expanded the Commerce Clause to include almost any interstate business activity
Gideon v. Wainwright
The right to counsel is fundamental to a fair trial; the state must provide an attorney to poor defendants charged with a felony; the Sixth Amendment applies to the states through the Fourteenth Amendment.
Gitlow v. New York
The First Amendment freedom of speech protection is incorporated/ applied to the states through the Fourteenth Amendment; incorporation doctrine
Griswold v. Connecticut
Struck down a state law that made it a crime to provide contraceptive information to married couples on the basis of a constitutionally protected right of privacy.
Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States
Congress has the power to prohibit the nation in private business based on authority to regulate interstate commerce.
Lemon v. Kurtzman
When a law or sate action involves religion, it must have a secular purpose; it cannot advance or inhibit religion, or excessively entangle the government with religion; Lemon Test
McCulloch v. Maryland
Upheld the constitutionally of the First Bank of the United States under the "necessary and proper clause," and denied the state the right to tax the Bank, nothing that "the power to tax is the power to destroy."
Mapp v. Ohio
Evidence that is seized illegally cannot be used as evidence in court; the exclusionary rule is applied to the states
Marbury v. Madison
The decision established the principal of judicial review; the Supreme Court has the power to declare a law passed by Congress unconstitutional.
Miller v. California
Outlines a test to define obscene materials that are not protected under the First Amendment. Community standards were included as were LAPS - a work is obscene if it has no "literary, artistic, political, or scientific" value.
Miranda v. Arizona
Prior to questioning by the police, a person in custody must be informed of the following: his or her constitutional rights to remain silent, that anything said can be used against him or her, that he/she has a right to have an attorney present during questioning, and to have an attorney appointed if he/she cannot afford one; Miranda Warning.
New Jersey v. T.L.O.
School officials can search a student suspected of violating school policy; school administrators have greater latitude in conducting a search than police or similar authorities in order to maintain an environment where learning can take place.
Planned Parenthood v. Casey
States can regulate abortion as long as an "undue burden" is not placed on women. A 24-hour waiting period, counseling on alternatives to abortion, and parental consent for minors were constitutional restrictions on the right to abortion
Plessy v. Ferguson
Segregation by race was constitutional provided the facilities are equal; Separate but equal doctrine.
Roe v. Wade
Women have an absolute right to an abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy based on a constitutionally protected right of privacy; the state can impose restrictions in the second and third trimesters.
Romer v. Evans
Ruled unconstitutional an amendment to the Colorado state constitution that voided existing local ordinances protecting gay and lesbian rights and prohibiting the adoption of such ordinances in the future.
Roth v. United States
Obscenity is not protected under the First Amendment; the decision recognized the validity of community standards in a test to determine if materials were obscene
Schenck v. United States
Freedom of speech is not absolute; the decision established the clear-and-present danger test as a constitutional restriction of free speech; you cannot yell "fire" in a crowded theatre.
Texas v. Johnson
The burning of the American flag is symbolic speech and is protected under the First Amendment
Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District
The wearing of arm bands by students to protest the war in Vietnam is protected speech and cannot be prohibited by school officials; students do not give up their constitutional rights at the school house door
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services
The states may prohibit abortions in public hospitals and clinics and by public employees; limitation on abortion rights
Wesberry v. Sanders
Struck down apportionment system that allowed for congressional districts that varied significantly in size.