hereditary genius (1869)
Forefather of intelligence tests
Sir Francis Galton
higher intelligence was due to superior qualities passed down to children through heredity
Intelligent vs unintelligent peeps
idiotic people can't deal with information gained through the senses whereas clever peeps can
Galton's 'intelligence' tests
responsiveness to stimuli --> hot/cold, pain, reaction time, sight, hearing, distinguish between colours, eye judgment, strength
Creator of the first intelligence test
to identify primary school aged children whose lack of sucess or ability might lead them to require a special eductaion
The first intelligence test
Binet-Simon Scale (1905) Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon
Construct of the Binet-Simon Scale
30 tasks related to everyday life. E.g. following a lighted match with your eyes, shaking hands, naming parts of the body, counting coins, naming objects in a picture, recalling lists of digits, word definitions, filling in missing words. Increases in difficulty
Design of Binet-Simon Scale
tasks increase with dificulty. Each level of the test was designed to match a developmental stage in childrem agaed 3-10. Determines the childs mental age.
Implications of Galton
some of his measurements e.g. reaction times are still used today. First attempt to measure intelligence directly
Binet's contributions to psychology
use of age in psychological testing, comparing childrens abilitities to those of the same age. Now used in reading ages. Final tests included 12-15 y.o. and adults
New methods for the diagnosis of the intellectual level of subnormals (1905) and The development of intelligence in children
Creator of the Stanford-Binet test (1916)
Lewis Terman - Stanford university
Why did Terman revise the Binet-Simon Scale
norms weren't suitable for kids in california - 40 new items
Tasks of the Stanford Binet test
4 years --> compare horizontal lines and say which is longer, copy and square, find a shape that matched the target. 9 years --> show awareness of dates, arrange weights from highest to lowest, mental arithmetic
Who did Terman test?
over 1000 kids aged 4-14 --> much more accurate than Binet
Legacy of Terman
using representative samples, need for standardising tests
What did William Stern do?
developed the intelligence quotient (1916)
What did Stern discover?
mental age varied among children proportionally to their real age. If a child aged 6 has a mental age of 5 then at aged 10 they will have a mental age of 8
What is the intelligence quotient formula
(mental age / chronological age) x 100
What score is average intelligence?
100 e.g child age 8 with mental age of 8 = (8/8) x 100 = 100
Legacy of Stern
Terman used the IQ for his Stanford Binet test. Can compare children across ages. Gives 'norms'. Influenced all other intelligence tests.
Who was Robert Yerkes and what did he do?
President of the APA in 1917. Developed two group intelligence tests to assess intelligence of recruits in WW1.
Why couldn't Yerkes used Stanford-Binet?
Too time consuming. Needed a test that could be taken by lots of people simultaneously with one experimenter
What was the Army Alpha test?
tests a wide range of cognitive abilities based of literacy. Included 8 tasks.
1. follow oral directions,
2. solve arithmetical problems,
3. Show practical judgement,
4. use synonyms and antonyms,
5. rearraged disarranged sentences,
6. complete series of numbers,
7. see analogies,
8. demonstrate general knowledge
What is the army Beta test?
similar to the alpha test but free from literacy. Instructions given through hand signals. The examiners recorded responces. 7 tasks.
1. maze task,
2. cube analysis,
3. read an X-O series of graphic displays in left to right sequences,
4. tests using digit symbols,
5. test using number symbols,
7. geometrical construction
How were the alpha and beta tests scored?
scores of subtests were combined to give total score. Put in catergory based on score. A = superior intelligence B, C+ or C = average intelligence, C-, D, D- = inferior intelligence
Implications of Yerkes
tested 1.75 million people, raised the status of psychology and intelligence testing --> yerkes received requests from business, industry and education
How has intelligence testing improved since Terman and Yerkes?
more people can be tested at one time, an official way to measure intelligence through IQ, the consideration of culture and time limits
Who introduced the idea of general intelligence?
What are Spearman's famous publications
General Intelligence: Objectively determenined and measured The abilities of man
What did Charles Spearman set out to do?
estimate the intelligence of children in the village school
What did Spearmans first tests involve?
memory, changes in illumination, weight and pitch
What did Spearman do with the data he collected over the years?
he analysed the realtionships between the data collected through using different tests and subjected them to factor analysis
What did Spearman find from the factor analysis
positive correlations between intelligence tests and abilities e.g. vocabulary, mathematical, spatial
If you are good at one subject you are probably good at most subjects.
What were the two factors in Spearman's theory of intellience
specific and general 's' and 'g'
What is 'specific ability' or 's'
a type of intelligence needed to perform well on one particular type of task e.g. vocabulary
What is general intelligence or 'g'
the intelligence required to perform well in intelligence tests of all types. A kind of 'mental energy'. the factor behind the positive correlations. The ability to see relationships between objects, events and information and draw inferences from those relationships.
Implications of Spearman and general intelligence
became a major theory and informs many subsequent approaches to intelligence - still believed by many prominent psychologists
Problem with previous intelligence tests
either used specific groups of people e.g. children, army recruits or used a very small sample
What did David Wechsler do?
created the Wechsler tests modled on Spearman's two factor model.
What was Wechler's first test?
The Wechsler-Bellevue scale (1939) - designed and standardised among a sample of 1500 adults
What did Wechsler introduce in 1955?
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) - stardardised among 2000 adults aged between 16 and 75. The Wechsler Scale for Children (WISC) - children aged 5-16
Design of Wechsler tests
administered on a 1-to-1 basis. Consists of several subtests to measure different aspects of intelligence.
What tasks did the Wechsler tasks include?
Arithmetic (verbal), block design, comprehension, digit span (verbal), digit symbol (performance), information (general knowledge, verbal), object assembly (performance), picture arrangement (performance), picture completeion (performance), similarities (verbal), Vocabulary (verbal)
How do the Wechsler tests deviate from previous intelligence tests?
people of any age could take them and complete all areas of the test, score is not relevant to mental and chronological age
Formula for deviation IQ
How much someone deviates from the average score of 100 (actual test score / expected score for that age) x 100
How did Wechsler determine the expercted score for a particular age?
he used stratisfied sampling across ages, demographic groups, social class, region --> calculated intelligence norms for all ages
How did Wechsler transform the wide range of scores and variations across the population to a standardised form?
he developed a measure that used a comparison of the person scores to means rather than age. Mean scores transformed to equal 100. Used the normal distribution curve.
What does normal distribution curve tell us about IQ
68% of the population lie withing 1sd of the mean with an IQ between 85 and 115. 95% of the population lie with in 2sds of the mean with an IQ of 70-130. SD of scores is 15. under 1sd is normal, between 1 and 2sd is low or high and above 2 sd is very low or very high
How are IQ scores labled?
25-55 --> moderate severe and profound retardation 55-70 --> Mild mental retardation 70-80 --> Boderline 80-90 --> dull normal 90-110 --> Average 110-120 --> Bright normal 120-145 --> Superior and very superior 145-160+ --> gifted
What did John Carlyle Raven publish?
Progressive Matrices (1938)
What were Raven's Progressive Matrices designed to do?
minimise the influence of culture and language by relying on non verbal problems that require abstract reasoning e.g. filling space with correct pattern
Construct of Raven's Progressive matrices
for ages 6-adult, 60 items, 5 sets, aranged in order of increasing difficulty. Participants given an overall score. IQ scores based on deviations from standardised norms.
What did L. L. Thurstone theorise?
'g' results from 7 primary mental abilities - multi-factor approach
How did Thurstone agree and disagree with Spearman?
agree - factor analysis, general intelligence. disagree - how g influences all areas of intelligence, spearman just showed a correlation
What are Thurstone's 7 primary mental abilities?
1. Associative memory - rote memory,
2. Number - ability to carry out mathematical operations,
3. perceptual speed - ability to percieve details, anomalies, similarities in visual stimuli,
4. reasoning - ability in inductive and deductive reasoning,
5. space - spatial visulisations,
6. verbal comprehension,
7. Word Fluency
What did Cattell theorise?
fluid and crystallised intelligence
What is crystallised intelligence?
Gc - acquired knowledge and skills, such as factual knowledge. culturally influenced
What is fluid intelligence?
Gf - primary reasoning ability = free from cultural influence. Defined by ability to acquire new information, understand new relationships, patterns and analogies in stimuli.
How do Gc and Gf differ?
Gc - increases throughout life, reflection of culmulative learning exerience. Gf - present from birth, stabilises in adulthood. They interact with each other
How are different subjects influenced by Gc and Gf
Maths - Gf - abstract thinking - do best work in young adulthood. History, literature - Gc - better work in later adulthood as they accumulate more knowledge.
Differences in Gc and Gf in intelligence tests
Wechsler --> Gc Raven's Progressive Matrices --> Gf
What did J.P Guilford theorise?
Structure of Intelligence (SI) theory - 150 independent abilities
How did Guildord disagree with Spearman?
didn't believe in 'g'
What Guilford's three groups of elementary abilities?
operations - types of mental processing, contents - the mental material we posses on which the operations are performed, products - the form in which the information is stored, processed and used by the person to make associations or connections
What are the 5 types of operations?
1.) evaluation - ability to examine, judge and appraise.
2.) Convergent production - ability to bring together information into a single theme
3.) divergent production - ability to produce ideas from a common point
4.) memory - retaining and recalling past experinece and information,
5.) cognition - knowing, awareness, perception, reasoning and judgement
What are the 5 types of contents?
What are the 6 types of products?
5.) transformation - the changing nature of information
How would Guildford explain the ability to remember seeing a dog using SI theory?
Content --> visual, Unit --> Dog, Operation --> memory
How Guilford expand SI theory?
1.) Reasoning and Problem solving intelligence --> dividing convergent and divergent intelligence into 30 abilities (6 products x 5 contents)
2.) Memory Intelligence --> dividing memory into 30 subgroups (6 products x 5 contents)
3.) Decision Making Skills --> dividing intelligence into 30 subgroups
4.) language skills --> dividing cognition into 30 subgroups
Evaluation of Guildfords SI theory
+opens up possibilities of intelligence
+ broadens veiw of intelligence
+ details how different aspects of intelligence intertwine to form specific abilities
- too complex to form a definitive theory
+ developed a wide variety of psychometric tests
- factor anaylsis does not support his overall theory
Who produced heirachical theories of intelligence?
Vernon, Carroll and Horn
What did Vernon hypothesise?
intelligence consists of various sets of abilities that can be described at various levels. He elaborated 'g' to include a series of group factors that fall in between 'g' and 's' factors
What is the structure of Vernon's heirachical model?
2.) Major group factors --> Verbal/education (v:ed)
--> Spatial/mechanical (k:m)
3.) minor group factors --> verbal, numerical, eductational, practical, mechanical, spatial, physical abilities
4.) Specific factors --> reading, spelling, grammar, punctuation
What did Carroll propose in 1993?
The three-stratum model of human cognitive abilities
What did Carroll base his heirachial model on ?
the factor analysis of 461 data sets compiled over the past 50-60 years
What were Carroll's three stratum?
Stratum I --> specific levels of intelligence (69 cognitive abilities)
Stratum II --> 8 broad factors arising from specific factos
1. fluid intelligenc (Gf)
2. Crystallised intelligence (Gc)
3. General memory and learning (Gy)
4. Broad Visual perception (Gv)
5. Broad auditory perception (Gu)
6. Broad rerieval ability (Gr)
7. Broad cognitive speediness (Gs)
8. Processing Speed (Gt)
Stratum III --> general level of intelligence ('g')
What did Horn research?
developing Cattell's theory of fluid and crystallised intelligence
He abandoned the idea of a general 'g' factor and came up with the idea of 7 broad 'g' abilities
What was Horn's theory called?
Cattell-Horn 'Gf-Gc' theory
What were the 9 dimensions of Horn's theory?
1. fluid reasoning (Gf)
2. Acculturation knowledge intelligence (Gc)
3. Short-term apprehension and retrieval abilities (SAR)
4. visual processing (Gv)
5. Auditory processing (Ga)
6. tertiary storage and retrieval (TSR/Glm)
7. Processing Speed (Gs)
8. Correct decision speed (CDS)
9. Quantitative Knowledge (Gq)
What were the implications of Cattell, Horn and Carroll's (CHC) theories?
the creation of the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery --> used to measure cognitive ability for people over 2 y.o. . The amalgamation of cattell, Horn and Carrol's theories.
What factors were similar in Cattell-Horn and Carroll?
1. fluid intelligence
2. crystallised intelligence
3. general memory and learning abilities
4. visual perception
5. auditory perception
What is the structure of CHC theory?
Stratum II - Broad stratum of 16 intelligences
Stratum I - Narrow stratum
What are the 16 intelligences of Stratum II in CHC theory?
1. Fluid Intelligence/reasoning (Gf)
2. Crystallised intelligence/knowledge (Gc)
3. General (domain-specific) Knowledge (Gkn)
4. Visual-spatial abilities (Gv)
5. Auditory processing (Ga)
6. Short-term memory (Gsm)
7. Long-term storage and retrieval (Glr)
8. Cognitive processing speed (Gs)
9. Decision/reaction time or speed (Gt)
10. Psychomotor Speed (Gps)
11. Quantitative knowledge (Gq)
12. Reading/Writing (Grw)
13. Psychomotor abilities (Gp)
14. Olfactory abilities (Go)
15. Tactile abilities (Gh)
16. Kinesthetic abilities (Gk)
What did Howard Gardener investigate?
How research into intelligence fits into the education system. Challenge previous assumptions of intelligence
What are Gardener's main beliefs on inteeligence?
intelligence doesn't depend on the individuals's sensory system.
intelligence is not a learning mechanism it is more like a computer that works well
intelligence testing focuses too much on logical-mathematical and linguistic intelligences and not enough on interpersonal skills.
IQ tests are biased
What are Gardener's 9 intelligences?
5. bodily kinasthetic
What does Gardener say in terms of intelligence and brain structure?
each intelligence resides in seperate sections of the brain but they do intereact with each other. Every individual has a different set of intelligence
What is Garderner's feelings on IQ?
cannot be defined by one number. Each intelligence has a seperate index and is idependent of the others.
Who developed the Triarchic theory of intelligence?
What is the structure of Sternbergs Triachic theory?
3 types of intelligence - known as subtheories
1. Componetial subtheory --> mental mechanisms that underlie intelligence
2. Contextual subtheory --> how mental mechanisms interact with the external world to demonstrate intelligent behaviour
3. Experiential subtheory --> how experience interacts with internal and the external world to form intelligent behaviours.
What are the 3 components of the componetial subtheory?
1. metacomponents ('g') --> mental mechanisms used to recognise, determine and develop stratergies to solve a problem.
2. performance components --> processes involved in solving the problem, mentally generating a number of solutions and comparing them
3. knowledge-axquisition components --> selective encoding, selective combination and selective comparison
What are the 3 external dimensions of contextual subtheory?
1. adaptation - changing yourself to suit the environment
2. shaping - adapting the environment to suit the individual
3. selection - choosing one environment over the other
How did sternberg measure aspects of contextual suntheory?
Tacit knowledge - action orientated knowledge, procedures and processes
What are the 6 aspects of Tacit Knowledge?
1. cognitive self-motivation skills
2. cognitive self-organisation skills
3. individual technical skills
4. institutional technical skills
5. task related interaction skills
6. social interaction skills
What are the 2 aspects of the experiential sub theory?
1. Novelty - the ability to deal with relative novelty
2. Automisation - the ability to perform a task with very little thought
Implications of Sternbergs theory
+ influential to the topics of giftedness, creativity and wisdom
- relativeley unexamined empirically