sodium chloride is commonly called______.
does not burn but is the gas that ordinarly supports the burning of other substances, most abundant element in the earth's crust; when combined with silicon it makes up sand
pale, green, poisonous gas
makes up charcoal, common source of heat, forms a huge variety of compounds that make up living things, can bond to form chains and rings, can form up to four bonds and form triple and double bonds
when carbon burns in the air, what is produced?
the universal solvent
most abundant element in the universe, lightest element
homogeneous mixture in which water is the solvent
when substances react, particles of the substance must collide. these reactions involve their...
group 18; unreactive, none are found naturally in the environment in a compound
atoms combine to become...
a ___ is an atom or group of combined atoms that has a charge because of the loss or gain of electrons
if an element loses an electron, what charge will it have?
if an element gains an electron, what charge will it have?
a _____ has a strong attractive force between ions of opposite charge
a ___ is regular, repeating arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules
metals and nonmetals
ionic bonds form between _____ & ______.
a ______ is an attraction of 2 atoms for a shared pair of electrons
an _______ has a strong 3D crystal structure, solid at room temperature, high melting point, soluble in water
a _________ is composed of molecules, liquid at room temperature, low melting point, do not conduct electricity
substance that conducts an electric current when melted or dissolved in water
calcium needs to ___ 2 electrons to become stable.
bromine needs to ____ 1 electron to become stable.
the _______ is the charge on an ion
metals tend to ____ electrons.
nonmetals tend to _____ electrons.
an ion that has two or more different elements
roman numerals are used to indicate the oxidation number on what types of elements...
compound in which there is no specific ratio of water to ionic compound
substances that easily absorb water from the air
substances that are so hygroscopic they take up enough water from the air to dissolve completely and form a liquid solution
a compound in which all of the water has been removed
substance used as a drying agent
_______ compounds contain carbon.
hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine
a substance that undergoes a reaction
each new substance formed when a reactant undergoes a chemical change
energy is absorbed in a ________ reaction.
a ______ is a reaction that releases heat energy.
in a ________ reaction two substances combine to form a single product
in a _______ reaction a compound breaks down into two or more simpler substances
in a _________ reaction one element takes the place of another in a compound
in a ________ reaction the two positive ions of two ionic compounds are interchanged
in a ___________ reaction a substance rapidly combines with oxygen to form one or more oxides
the compound dissolves in a liquid
the amount of energy particles must have when they collide with each other
when increasing the temperature of a reaction, it makes it go ____?
the amount of substance present in a certain volume
a substance that speeds up the rate of a reaction without being permanently changed of used up itself
biological catalysts found in nature
dyes used to indicate whether a substance is an acid or a base
what happens when red litmus paper is dipped in acid?
what happens when blue litmus paper is dipped in acid?
consists of a hydrogen ion attached to a water molecule
the process of forming ions in a solution
acids _____ in water.
a _______ is a substance that produces hydroxide ions when it dissolves in water
burning sulfur containing coal and automobile exhaust helps form....
a strong acid _______ ionizes in water.
a weak acid only _______ ionizes in a solution.
the pH of pure water is....
a term used to refer to materials that have noticeably basic properties
a mathematical scale in which the concentration of hydronium ions in a solution is expressed as a number from 0-14
reactions between acids and bases are called _____.
organic compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon atoms
__________ is another name for saturated hydrocarbons; they are unreactive and are good organic solvents
an __________ hydrocarbon is a hydrocarbon that has one or more double or triple bonds between carbons
an ________ is a hydrocarbon in which one or more double bonds link carbon atoms together
_______ are unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain a triple bond; few occur in nature because they are very reactive
________ are compounds whose structure is the same as hydrocarbons except for the substitution of atoms or another element for hydrogen
a large molecule that is made up of many smaller, repeating units
individual units that bond together in chains to form polymers
involves linking together of many polymer chains to give additional strength to the polymer
polymers that can be molded into different shapes
hydronium ions react with hydroxide ions to form water when an _____ reacts with a ______.
______forms when the positive ions from the base and negative ions from the acid form an ionic compound.
the substance being dissolved
the substance that dissolves the solute
a type of pure substance that can be broken down into simpler substances; it is a chemical combination of two or more different elements joined together in a fixed proportion
type of pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
combination of the chemical symbols that show what elements make up a compound and the number of atoms of each element
determines the physical state of a substance
_______ is the number of protons in an atom of that element
the group number on the periodic table tells the number of________________.
symbol for calcium
symbol for hydrogen
symbol for mercury
symbol for carbon
symbol for fluorine
symbol for iron
symbol for silver
symbol for gold
symbol for phosphorus
symbol for potassium
symbol for sodium
symbol for sulfur
symbol for chlorine
symbol for boron
symbol for magnesium
symbol for bromine
symbol for silicon
symbol for tin
symbol for lead