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Chapter 5

Crumb

Pg. 100...Bakers refer to the interior of baked goods as

Hydration

PG 101...Process of absorbing water.

Glutenin

PG 101...Protein found in wheat flour.

Gluten

PG 101... Combination of glutenin and gliadin (proteins found in what) with water and form a stretchable substance. [hydrated glutenin and gliadin proteins uncoil and attach to each other to form long chains]

Coagulation

PG 101...The firming and hardening of gluten proteins, usually caused by heat. They solidify into a firm structure.

Shortening

PG 102...Any fat used in baking because it shortens the gluten strands.

Water Hardness

PG 102...Refers to mineral content of the water, especially its calcium content. Water w/ high mineral content is called hard.

PH

PG102...A measure of water's acidity or alkalinity, on a scale of 0 - 14. A strong acid has a PH of 0, while a strong alkali has a PH of 14.

Mature Dough

PG 103... When the dough reaches ideal state of development. In the case of dough bread, the dough is soft and sticky at first. As gluten develops, the dough becomes smooth and less sticky.

Dough Relaxation

PG 103...Imp. technique in the production of most doughs. After mixing or kneading, gluten becomes stretched and tight. @ this point it becomes difficult to work or mold the dough. A period of rest or relaxation allow the gluten strands to become used to their new length and shape, and they become less tight.

Salt

PG 104... An important additive in yeast doughs. not only does it regulate yeast fermentation but also strengthens gluten and makes it more elastic. Yeast doughs w/o salt are harder to handle, and the gluten is more likely to tear.

Bran

PG 104...Inhibits gluten development because it prevents some of the gluten strands from sticking together, and the sharp edges cut through gluten strands that have formed.

Dough Conditioner

PG 104... Contain a mixture of ing, one of whose main functions is to strengthen gluten. Selection of dough conditioners depends on many factors, such as the hardness and ph of the water and the selection of flours..

Milk

PG 104... Including pasteurized, contains an enzyme that interferes w/ gluten development. If used in yeast doughs it should be scalded by heating it to simmer (180F or 82C) and then cooling before incorporating it in the dough.

Gelatinization

...Starch molecules are packed into tiny, hard granules. These granules attract and bond to water during mixing. As they are heated during baking, the water is absorbed into the granules, which swell greatly in size. Some of the starch granules break open and release starch molecules. During this process, starch molecules bond w/ any available water. Most (but not all) of the water is still present but has bonded w/ starch.

Caramelization

PG. 106...Chemical changes occurs to sugar. The browning of sugars

Maillard Reaction

PG 106...Chemical changes occur starches, sugar and proteins. Causes most of the browning of baked goods. This is a process that occurs when proteins and sugars together are subjected to high heat. This browning also occurs on the surface of meats and other high-protein foods.

Starch Retrogradation

.PG 107..During the cooling process, starches continue to gelatinize while the interior is still hot. Starch molecules bond with each other and become more solid as the prod. cools. This process is responsible for staling.

Staling

PG 107...The change in texture and aroma of baked goods due to a change of structure and a loss of moisture by the starch granules.

List and Describe Briefly the three stages of of mixing of dough or batter?

PG 100...1) Blending the ing. 2) Forming the dough 3) Developing the dough - These phases overlap one another. For example the dough begins to form and to develop even before the ing. are uniformly blended.

What are cell walls made of?

Pg. 100 They consist of open spaces surrounded by elastic walls made primarily of protein such as gluten or egg albumin.

Describe how air cells are formed

Pg. 100...The begin forming as soon as the mixing process starts. Plenty of air is present between the particles flour and other dry ing. In some cases, as w/ cakes, additional air cells are introduced when certain liquid ing. are added, as when egg foams are folded. It is important to understand that nonew air cells form during baking.

Name two functions of air cells

Pg. 100...When gases are formed by leavening agents, they collect inside the air cells. As the gases expand during baking, the cell walls stretch and enlarge. Eventually, the heat of baking causes the cell walls to become firm, giving structure and support to the baked item.

Describe what happens when gluten proteins come in contact with water when mixing.

Pg. 100... Air cells are usually rather large at the beginning of mixing, but as mixing continuous, these large cells become divided into smaller ones, and stretch to form more cell walls. This means the length of mixing determines the final texture of the item.

What is the result of over-mixing on bread dough?

PG 103...Gluten strands break and the dough becomes sticky and stringy. Over-mixing results in poor loaf volume, because the broken gluten is no longer able to support the structure.

What is the result of over-mixing on pie dough?

PG. 103... Over-mixing results in toughness

Discuss seven factors that affect the development of gluten in batters and doughs. (1)

PG 102.. (1) Selection of flour -The proteins in wheat flour, especially in patent flour from hard wheat, form good-quality gluten-that is the gluten is strong and elastic.

Discuss seven factors that affect the development of gluten in batters and doughs. (2)

PG 102...(2) Fat and other tenderizers - Any fat used in baking is called shortening because it shortens the gluten strands. It does this by surrounding the particles and lubricating them so they do not stick together. Thus, fats are tenderizers. Sugar is another tenderizer that inhibits gluten development. Sugar is hygroscopic, meaning that it attracts and binds to water. Water that is attracted to sugar is not available to hydrate gluten.

Discuss seven factors that affect the development of gluten in batters and doughs. (3)

PG 102...(3) Water - Because gluten protein must absorb water before they can develop, the amount of water in the formula can affect toughness or tenderness. The condition of water used in bread doughs, specifically hardness and PH, also affect gluten. Water hardness refers to mineral content of the water, especially its calcium content. Water w/ high mineral content is called hard-they strengthen gluten, often to much, making the dough too elastic and hard to work. Water that is to soft makes a dough that is too slack and sticky.

Discuss seven factors that affect the development of gluten in batters and doughs. (4)

Pg. 102...(4) -- Mixing methods - When ing. in dough are mixed, three imp. processes take place: the mixing action blends the water w/ the flour so the flour proteins can hydrate. This is the first step in the development of gluten. -- Air is mixed into the dough. The oxygen in the air reacts w/ the gluten and helps strengthen it and make it more elastic. -- The mixing action develops the gluten by stretching and aligning the gluten strands into elastic network. Dough relaxation is an imp. technique in the production of most doughs. After mixing or kneading, gluten becomes stretched and tight. @ this point it becomes difficult to work or mold the dough. A period of rest or relaxation allow the gluten strands to become used to their new length and shape, and they become less tight.

Discuss seven factors that affect the development of gluten in batters and doughs. (5)

PG 103...Leavening -Yeast fermentation helps gluten development because the expansion of air cells by yeast stretches the gluten just as mixing does. While it strengthens the gluten, leavening also tenderizes the prod. Too much fermentation hurts the gluten structure because ot becomes over-stretched.

Discuss seven factors that affect the development of gluten in batters and doughs. (6)

PG 103... Temperature - Gluten develops more at warm room temp. than at cold temp. The ideal temp. for mixing bread dough is 70 to 80F (21 - 27C). Tender prod. such as pie dough are best made w/ ice cold water and mixed at cool temp. to limit gluten development.

Discuss seven factors that affect the development of gluten in batters and doughs. (7)

PG 104... Other Additives - Salt, Bran, Dough Conditioners, Milk (read above)

Why do some cakes fall if they are removed from the oven to soon?

PG 103...The proteins (gluten) do not coagulate soon enough because of low temperature. Also, adding too much baking powder has an effect similar to over-fermenting a yeast dough. The protein structure of the batter is stretched to far and can't hold, so it is likely to collapse.

Which kind of cake would you expect to have better keeping qualities--a sponge cake, which is low in fat or a high ratio cake which is high in both fat and sugar?

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