Chapter 24 Postwar Society and Culture:Change and Adjustment

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During the 1920's, how were immigrants from souhtern and eastern Europe affected by the new quota system of immigration?

They found it much more difficult to immigrate.

In addition to closing its gates to eastern European immigrants in the 1920's, the United States also

expirenced increasing anti-Semitism.

One of the new urban social patterns of the 1920's was the

emergence of the idea of intrafamily democracy.

During the 1920's young men and women

replaced "dating" with "paying a call"

"The Chicago School" of urban sociology and accounts of the "lady murderesses" Beluah Annan and Belva Gaertner rflected societal concerns about

city life

Feminist Maragaret Sanger was one of the

strongest proponents of birth control

Those considered "social feminists" in the 1920's

sought protective legislation for working women.

After winning the vote, most women in the 1920's

lost interest in agitatiing for change.

In the 1920's,______________led the campaign for an equal rights amendment to the Constitution

Alice Paul

The 1920's saw immnese changes in popular culture becaue of the two new technologies of

motion pictures and radios

The first significant talking movie was

The Jazz Singer

The greatest film star of his, who won fame as a sad litle tramp, was

Charlie Chaplin

During the 1920's , American sports were

extraordinarily popular

The Sac and Fox Indian who was propbably the greatest all-around athlete of the twentieth century was

Jim Thorpe

The "Sultan of Swat" who trasnformed baseball during the 1920's with his hitting prowess was

Babe Ruth

In the 1920's, many rural Americans thought of the new city-oriented culture as

blighted by sin and materialism

Utban-rural tensions of the twenties produced a resurgence of

religious fundamentalism

The popular politician who was the greates asset of religious fundamentalists campaigning against teaching Darwin's theory of evolution in the schools was

William Jenning's Bryan

The chif councel for the defendant, John T. Scopes, in the famous "Monkey Trial" was

Clarence Darrow

The 1925 Dayton, Tennessee "Monkey Trial" dealt with

teaching evolution in the public schools.

The prohibition movement was most strongly supported by ___________Americans

rural

Prohibition was a typical progressive reform becasue it was

designed to frustrate "the interests"

The infamous gangster who grabbed wealth and power in Chicago during prohibition was

Al Capone

The most horrible exmaple of the social malaise of the 1920's, was the

revival of the Ku Klux Klan.

A major factor in the collapse of the Ku Klux Klan in the late 190's was the

growing public awareness of its cruelty.

The literature of the 1920's reflected the

disillusionment of the intellectuals

The Sacco-Vanzetti case that inspired many intectuals implied that American justice had little sympathy towards

religous fundamentalism

The symbol of the "lost generation" and the author of the Great Gatsby was

F. Scott Fitzgerald.

The expatriate novelist Ernest Hemingway

portrayed a world of rootless desperation, amorality, and outrage at life's meaninlessness.

In an effort to escape postwar life and culture, which of the following authored a potrait of the nineteenth century?

Edith Wharton

America's foremost cynic of the 1920's, who displayed witty contempt for almost everything was?

H. L. Mencken

Probably America's most popular novelist of the 1920's,___________satirized contemporary society in Main Street and Babbit

Sinclair Lweis.

During the 1920's black Americans experienced

discrimination and concentration in northern ghettos

The leader of the Universal Negro Imprvement Association, whose slogan was "Back to Africa," was

Marcus Garvey

The flourishing of black literature, theatre, and music during the twenties was known as the

Harlem Renaissance

The most important cause of prosperity during the "new era" was the

imporved efficiency among American manufacturers.

Bruce Barton's best-selling book, The Man Nobody Knows, described

Jesus as the founder of modern business

During the 1920's, the___________industry had the single most important impact on the nation's booming economy.

automobile

The individual most responsible for the most growth of the automobile industry was

Henry Ford

It would be accurate to say that Henry Ford

realized mass production could make a car cheap enough for the average consumer

Henry Ford believed that an important apsect in increasing output was

increasing wages

The almost simultaneous developments in airplanes and automobiles in the early twentieth century were due to the fact that both developments were stimulated by the

invention of the internal combustion engine

In May 1927, the first solo non-stop flight form New York to Paris was made in the Spirit of St. Louis by

Charles Lindbergh

In retrospect, the era of the 1920's seems to be clearly a period of

rapid transition during which the complex modern world was emerging.

The term with which President Warren G. Harding is frequently identified is

"normalcy".

The Ohio gang is asscociated with President

Warren G. Harding

Of his life in the White House, which of the following presidents referred to it as "prison"?

Warren G. Harding

His admirers regarded Andrew Mellon as the greatest secretary of the treasury since Alexander Hamilton because he

proposed reducing the income tax on high incomes and abolishing the inheritance tax.

During the 1920's, appointments to federal regulatory agencies such as the
interstate Commerce Commision and the Federal Reserve Board were generally

pro-big business.

Charles R. Forbes, a Harding appointee, stole millions of dollars from the

Veterans Bureau

The illegal leasing of government oil reserves at Teapot Dome, Wyoming was the worst scandal involving the adminsitration of President

Warren G. Harding

Harding's Secretary of the Interior, Albert B. Fall, was

implicated in the Teapot Dome Scandal.

Immeadiately after the Great War, Americans generally were

retreating into isolationism.

The Five-Power Treaty signed by the United States, Great Britain, Japan, France, and Italy in 1922 committed them to

limiting their battleships to a fixed ratio

Under the Kellog-Briand Pact of 1928, the United States agreed to

renounce war as a solution in international controversies

Members of the peace movement of the 1920's believed that

peace could be attained by pointing out the moral disadvantages of war.

Herbert Hoover's administration reversed the policies of President Wilson toward Latin America by

declaring the right to intervene dependent on the doctrine of self-preservation

The significant change in American policy toward the Carribean that occurred in the 1930's was

withdrawing American marines occupyig Nicaragua, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic.

The totalitarian challenge to the United States and the European democracies began with the 1931 invasion of Manchuria by

Japan

Under the Stimson Doctrine, the United States

declared that it would never recognize the legality of seizures made in violation of U.S. treaty rights.

The democracies failed to unite to resist totalitarianism during the 1920's and 1930's because they disagreed with each other over the

repayment of debts from the Great War

The 1924___________Plan attempted to solve Germany's post-war financial problems by granting it a $200 million loan

Dawes

The Republican elected president in 1928, the "intectual leader, almost philosopher, of the New Era," was

Herbert Hover

The Democratic candidate for president in 1928 was_________,an anti-prohibition Catholic from New York City.

Al Smith

Herbert Hoover's victory in 1928 was

a smashing triumph, appearing to doom the Democrats to extinction

During the twenties, large manufacturers

ofen sought market stability through trade associations.

The weakest element in the economy during the 1920's was

agriculture.

President Hoover believed that direct economic aid to farmers

should be opposed as a matter of principle

The primary economic weakness undermining the prosperity of the 1920's was the

maldistribution of resources.

The October 1929 collapse of _________signaled the end of the speculative boom.

the New York Stock Exchange.

The president during the stock market collapse and th start of the Great Depression was

Herbert Hoover

The Great Depression was a worldwide phenomenon caused chiefly by the

economic imbalances resulting from the chaos of the Great War

The economic problems causing the Great Depression came to a head mainly becasue of the

easy credit policies of the Federal Reserve Board.

Herbert Hoover's primary response to the Great Depression was to

try to restore public confidence.

Hoover's program for ending the Depression called for the federal government to

lend funds to banks and corporations on the verge of collapse

Hoover's plans for ending the Great Depression

might have been theoritically sound, but flexibility was needed in their implementation.

During the Great Depression, President Hoover permitted the Federal Farm Board to

establish stabilization corporations to purchase surplus wheat and cotton.

One important aspect of the way Hoover dealt with the Great Deprssion was his

refusal to allow federal funds to be used for direct relief for individuals.

In 1932, Hoover approved creating the __________to lend money to insurance companies, railroads, and banks.

Reconstruction Finance Corporation

Herbert Hoover's response to the Great Depression was inadequate because it was

too rigid and uncompromising

What was the effect of the federal government's attempt to balance the budget during the Depression?

It set a good example for the populance on how to live within one's means.

During the Great Depression, "Hovervilles" became homes for

Homeless people

In the early 1930's, federal immigration agents rounded up__________for deportaiton because of fear they might become dependent on public funds.

Mexican Americans

The Bonus Army which came to Washington D.C. in 1932, consisted largely of

leftwing activists.

Disgruntled by the events of the 1920's, a considerable number of members of which group became interested in communism?

Intellectuals

How were families of the unemployed affected by the Great Depression?

Wive's influence tended to increase.

Franklin D. Roosevelt owed his nomination for president to his success as

govenor of New York

During the 1920's, Franklin D. Roosevelt's political ideas were

consistent with the basic values of Coolidge prosperity.

President Franklin Roosevelt called his plan of reform and recovery the

New Deal

Unlike the policies of his opponent, Franklin Roosevelt pledged during his campaign that his administration would

do what was necessary to protect individuals and advance the public good.

The heart of Roosevelt's New Deal was

bold, persistent experimentation

By the day FDR's inauguration in 1933, banking operations

had collapsed totally throughout the country.

The "Hundred Days" refers to the enormous amount of legislation enacted during the

first three months of FDR's first administration.

The Civilian Conservation Corps was intended primairly to

create soil conservation and reforestation jobs for unemployed for unemployed young men.

In the early New Deal, FDR hoped to stimulate business recovery through the partial suspension of antitrust laws, but with worker protection, in the _________Act.

National Industrial Recovery.

Which of the following was NOT a result of the National Industrial Recovery Act?

the end of the Depression

The labor organization led by John L. Lewis, which fought to organize the semi-skilled and unskilled workers in major mass production industries in the 1930's, was the

Committee for Industrial Organization.

The Agricultural Adjustment Act sought to raise farm income by

restricting commodity production.

Perhaps the most serious weakness of the Agricultural Adjustment Act was

failing to assist tenant farmers and sharecroppers.

The philosophy of the New Deal is best described as

lacking any consistent ideological base.

The Civil Works Administration

created jobs for the unemployed.

The New Deal program that provided billions of dollars for roads, stadiums, actors, writers, and artists was the ______Administration.

Work Progress

The novel that best portrayed the desperate plight of millions impoverished by the Depression was The Grapes of Wrath writen by

John Steinbeck

The author of The Sound and the Fury, and perhaps the finest novelist of the era, was

William Faulkner

The most formidable of the extremists opposing Roosevelt and leader of the Share Our Wealth movement was

Huey P. Long

The popluar "Radio Priest" whose program criticized Roosevelt and came to resemble facism was

Charles Coughlin

FDR's critic who presented a popular scheme for old-age pensions was

Huey P. Long

Justice Brandeis urged Roosevelt to

restore competition and increase corporate taxation.

The New Deal meausre that the Supreme Court declared unconstitutional in Schechter v. United States was the ___________Act.

National Industrial Recovery.

The "Second" New Deal measure giving workers the right to bargain collectively and prohibiting employers from interfering with union organization activities in their factories was the __________Act.

National Labor Relations or Wagner

The presidential election of 1936 is most accurately seen as a

tremendous vote of confidence for FDR

The chief obstacle to New Deal legislation, which FDR trid to outmaneuver in 1937, was

the Supreme Court

FDR sought to make the Supreme Court more "pro-New Deal" in 1937 by proposing that

the number of justices should be increased.

The result of Roosevelt's "court packing" plan was

a serious loss of prestiege for Roosevelt but the saving of Second New Deal legislation.

When the United States Automobile Workers conducted "sit-down strikes" against General Motors, Roosevelt

thought them illegal, but refused to intervene.

Roosevelt's popularity slumped sharply during the late 1930's, partly because of the

recession of 1937-1938.

As the 1938 elections approached, Roosevelt sought to "purge"

a number of conservative Democratic senators

One of the problems with the New Deal was that it

increased the size of the federal bureaucracy and made government more difficult to monitor

The "most significant" aspect of the "Roosevelt revolution" was that it

committed the country to the idea of federal responsibility for the national welfare.

In addition to heading an informal network of Washington women inkey posts, Eleanor Roosevelt was noted for her special interest in better treatment for

blacks

During FDR's first two terms, ___________dramatically shifted their support from the Republicans to the Democrats

blacks

The New Deal's Commisioner of Indian Affairs who tried to implement more pluralistic policies was

John Collier

The New Deal's Indian Reorganizaion Act of 1934 encouraged

returning individually owned lands to tribal control

Franklin D. Roosevelt is best described as

one of the most effective chief executives in the nation's history.

Roosevelt communicated directly and effectively with the public through

"fireside chats"

During FDR's first term, 1933-1937, the hallmark of American foreign policy was

neutrality and isolationism.

The invasion of which African country is demonstrative of the expansionist aims of Italy during the 1930's?

Ethiopa

How did the Neutrality Act of 1935 treat the sale of munitions?

it forbade their sale to all belligerents whenever the president should proclaim that a state of war existed.

Democracy and fascism clashed in 1936 when civil war broke out in

Spain

In March of 1939 Adolph Hitler broke his promise made at Munich and seized

Czechoslovakia

In 1939, Britain and France declared war after Germany invaded

Poland

How did the German attack on Poland affect Americans' thinking?

keeping out of the war remained an almost universal hope, but preventing a Nazi victory became their ultimate objective.

The federally funded top-secret atomic bomb program established by Roosevelt in 1939 was known as the

Manhattan Project

In 1940, the Roosevelt administration "traded" 50 World War I destroyers to Great Britain for

naval bases in the Carribean

In early 1941, FDR proposed aiding the finacially exhausted British under the __________Act.

Lend-Lease

FDR spoke for the hopes of many for a better post-war world when he expressed his goal of

Four Freedoms

At the end of November, 1941, the United States was

fighting an undeclared naval war with Germany.

In conferences with the Japanese ambassador in the spring of 1941, Secretary of State Cordell Hull

insisted that Japan withdraw from China and pledge to no further agression.

The United States declared war on Japan after the surprise attack on December 7, 1941 on

Pearl Harbor.

Roosevelt's greatest accomplishment as a wartime leader was his

ability to inspire people with a sense of national purpose.

The World War II board which exercised complete control over domestic prices and wages was the

Office of War Mobilization

How did the war effort between 1941 and 1946 affect the U.S. standard of living?

it had almost no adverse effect on the average person's standard of living.

Between 1941 and 1945, spending by the federal government was

twice as much as in its enitre previous history

To pay almost 40% of the cost of World War II, the government

increased taxes.

A major social effort of World War II on American life was a

tendency for the population to shift to California and other far western states

During World War II, American families experienced

increasing marriage and birth rates

The lives of black Americans imporved during and immeadiately after World War II because

Hitler's brutal treatment of Jews led Americans to reexamine their own racial views.

During World War II, black males were

permitted to join the various military services, but were segregated.

In 1943, young__________were attacked by rioting sailors in the Los Angeles.

Hispanics

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