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During early childhood, on average girls are ___ than boys.

slightly smaller

myelination occurs in the brain when:

nerve cells become insulated with a layer of fat

Sanjay and Ryan are 4 year old friends. When they are together, they often wrestle, run, race, push and shove each other. Although their level of activity often aggravates their parents, we know that this activity will

help the boys develop gross motor skills

Hallie is very active. She loves to tumble and show off. She is not afraid of doing what her parents consider to be hair-raising stunts. She also loves to run and believes she is faster than her parents. This type of activity level and confidence is most characteristic of the:

5 year old

three year olds scribble all over the page, but 4 year olds can make more precise drawings that adults can understand. This is because 4 year olds have more highly developed:

fine motor skills

guidelines offered by the national association for sport and physical education (2002) suggest that preschool children should engage in ___ of physical activity per day.

2 hours

if a mother wants to reduce the risk that her child will develop asthma, wheezing, and sleeping problems, she should:

stop smoking

Piaget claimed that children between the ages of 2 and 7 years are in a stage called pre operational thought, so named because he believed that:

children at this age do not yet use mental operations in their thought

a young child might be heard saying "that tree pushed the leaf off and it fell down" the childs belief that the tree is capable of action is referred to as:

animism

in talking with Grandma on the phone, little Marcelo suddenly claims, "oh, look at that pretty red bird" when his grandmother asks him to describe the bird, Marcelo says, "out there, out there! right there, Grandma!" he finally gets frustrated and hangs up, this is an example of:

egocentrism

the belief in the permanence of certain attributes of objects or situations in spite of superficial changes is called:

conservation

when adults are working with young children, they often provide a lot of hints, assistance, instruction and other support to help the children succeed. As the children demonstrate they can do more for themselves, the adults begin to withdraw these supports. This shows the adults' involvement in the children's:

zone of proximal development (ZPD)

When teachers adjust their level of support and guidance to the level of skill of the student is called

scaffolding

in short term memory, individuals retain information for

15-30 seconds

according to the theory of mind, at what age do children have a solid understanding of false beliefs?

4-5 years

what is morphology?

the units of meaning involved in word formation

____refers to the appropriate use of language in different contexts

pragmatics

according to Erikson the psychosocial stage that characterizes early childhood is:

initiative versus guilt

according to Erikson, what is the "great governor" of initiative

conscience

self-conscious emotions do not appear until the second year of life because

children have not developed a sense of self-awareness until then

a parent who denies, ignores or tries to change the negative emotions of their children would be called

emotion dismissing parent

the development of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding rules and conventions about what people should do in their interactions with other people is called ____development

moral

Piaget was primarily interested in

moral reasoning of children

a childs sense of being male or female is referred to as their

gender identity

the social role theory of gender differences suggests that

gender differences result from the contrasting roles of women and men in most cultures

Suzanne believes that helping children develop their independence while still placing appropriate boundaries and limits on their actions is the most important function of parenting. Suzanne is probably an

authoritative parent

Bernard just brought home his report card and placed it on the television set. Bernard told his dad that he was required to bring the card back to school tomorrow with the signature of one of his parents. Bernards dad told him to move out to the way because he could not see the TV. The next morning, Bernard found his report card where he left it, unsigned. He signed his dad's name and put it in his backpack. Bernards dad is most likely a

neglectful parent

the term "child maltreatment:" includes all but which of the following possibilites

tough love

which of the following is NOT one of the types of play identified by Mildred Parten?

practice play

when a 2 year old pretends to "eat" a book and uses this type of play as a funny way to explore ideas, this play is referred to as

symbolic

improvement of fine motor skills during middle and late childhood is likely a result of

increased myelination of the central nervous system

Which of the following is most fatiguing to an elementary school child?

long periods of sitting

which of the following types of cancer is the most prevalent in children?

leukemia

Tavonte has been having serious problems in his math class. As hard as he and his teachers have tried, he is having major difficulty grasping the basic concepts of arithmetic functions. Which learning disorder might Tavonte be suffering with?

dyscalculia

Recent research suggests that ____is the most effective treatment of ADHD

a combination of medication and behavior management

children who are diagnosed with ___ have deficits in social relationships; abnormalities in communications; and restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior

Autistic disorder

which of the following is NOT a characteristic of concrete operational thought

the ability to think abstractly

Mimi looks at her mother and says "grandma can't be your mother because she's my grandmother" Mimi does not yet understand

classification

questions on intelligence tests often mesure ____thinking

convergent

although Casey has scored poorly on standardized intelligence tests, can use ideas, implement them, and put them to practice. According to Sternberg, he has ____intelegence.

practical

children with above-average intelligence and a superior talent for something ae called

gifted

In terms of self-understanding, children in late childhood are more likely than children in early childhood

use psychological characteristics and traits to describe themselves

which of the following terms refers to global evaluations of the self?

self-esteem

ten year old Julio cannot get his science project to work. In fact, it seems to him that nothing he makes ever works properly. According to Erikson, Julio is at risk for developing

inferiority

according to Lawrence Kohlberg, the highest and most internalized level of moral development is to be found in the stage called:

universal ethical principles

as children grow older, parents tend to spend

less time with them

maybe you've heard the song that goes "Here's a story of a lovely lady who was bringing up three very lovely girls" the song goes on to sing "it's the story of a man named brady who was living with 3 boys of his own" the fact that the Brady Bunch was about 2 single parents, each with their own children, who got created a ___ family

blended

all of the following are peer statuses, EXCEPT

conforming

Children who are bullied have increased feelings of

loneliness, difficulty making friends and depression

which of the following is NOT one of the functions of childrens friendships

healthy conflict

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