while latin was considered the talking style of most educated people, those less educated spoke in a ____________________ that varied from region to region
Italian, French, German
Present day _________, ________, and __________ are all products of Middle Ages vernacular languages
wrote poems and fmaous plays; he is considered to be the father of the Italian language
wrote the Canterbury Tales
his writings raised questions about the church's teachings by using the church;s words against themselves
summarized medieval thought (Summa Theologiae)
type of architecture that used Arches, Domes, Vaults and low horizontal lines in their churches
type of architecture that used Pointed arches, tall spires, and high walls
who is responsible for uniting the Frankish kingdoms?
Around What time period did the Franks start to become influential in the Rhine River?
what were clovis's successors called?
the Carolingians, a new line of Frankish rulers
what did Pepin's reign establish?
Lombards, a germanic tribe
what group did pepin's armies defeat?
Lombards, Saxons, and the Avars
what are three groups that Charlemagne conquered?
Charlemagne was given the title the "Emperor of the Romans" by Pope Leo III because the title indicated Charlemagne's importance to western Europe.
What title did Pope Leo III grant him on Christmas Day in 800? Why?
Charlemagne's empire was split into regions, and each region was governed by an offical known as a _________
Frankish city of Aix-la-Chapelle
what was the capital of Charlemagne's empiire?
who was one of Europe's greatest thinkers that Charlemagne appointed to head his school>
-Burials at sea on sea vessels
-democrats with assemblies of landowners making laws
-had long narrow ships with sections for rowers and huge sails
contributions of vikings
The land was given to the lesser noble, but ownership still stayed with the powerful noble. The products that were made on the land went to the powerful noble and a small percentage to the lesser Nobel. In exchange for living on the land as well as maintaining it, the lesser noble would pledge loyalty, military assistance to the powerful Nobel. The land given was called a fief.
How was land granted by a noble to a lesser noble? What was the grant of land exchanged called?
Women were able to hold land, however when they married it became part of their dowry and their new husbands would be the primary landowners.
Were women able to own land
Armor was made of chain mail, iron helmet, and they carried a sword. Invention of gunpowder issued in the first bullet-proof vest as knights usually fought on horseback.
What would be the attire for a typical knight in Medieval Europe?
Feudal justice: more about a person's character or physical attributes than Regular Justice: trials were decided by judges and juries
What is feudal justice, and how did it differ from regular justice?
Where did church leaders meet in 1095 to discuss the situation with the Turks in the Holy Land?
Who is responsible for establishing a truce with Saladin during the Third Crusade
What was the last Christian stronghold in the Holy Land that was captured during the last Crusade?