Grouping of objects or organisms based on a set of criteria
Discipline of Biology concerned with identifying, naming and classifying, species based on natural relationships
Scientist who came up with method of naming organisms with a two part scientific names called binomial nomenclature
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya
Plantae, Animalia, Fungi, Bacteria, Archaea, Portista
Cells with membrane-bound organelles and a nucleus
How are viruses classified?
The type of Nucleic acid they contain
What is the outer layer of viruses made up of and called?
Proteins - called a capsid
Differences between bacteria and archaebacteria?
Ribosomal proteins and RNA, Bacterial cell walls contain peptidoglycan and archaea do not, different lipids in their plasma membrane.
Cocci, Spirilla, Bacilli
Division of a cell into two genetically identical cells
Two bacteria cells attach to each other and exchange genetic information
require oxygen to grow
How are Protists classified?
By their method of obtaining nutrition
Heterotrophs; are called protozoans
Protists that make their own food through photosynthesis
How do fungus-like protists get nutrients?
Absorb from other organisms
How are protozoans Classified?
Method of movement
Hair- like projection used for movement and to move food into the cell
Expel excess water from the cell
Temporart extension of cytoplasm that can surround and envelope a smaller organism, forming a food vacuole and can also be used for locomotion
Reproductive cells that form without fertilization
Long whip-like projections that protrude from the cell and are used for movement
Light- sensitive receptor that helps orient a protists toward light for photosynthesis
Absorb nutrients through their cell walls, use spores to reproduce, and feed on decaying organism matter
make up the body of the fungus and are made up thread like filaments.
Net-like mass formed from Hyphae
Organism that feeds on dead organisms or organic waste
Plants carry on this process where glucose and oxygen are made from carbon dioxide and water
Openings in the outer cell layer of leaves that enable the exchange of gasses
Tissue specialized for transport
Site of Photosynthesis
Plant structure that contains an embryo, nutrients and a protective coat
Alternation of generations
Includes a haploid gameteophyte generation and a diploid sporophyte generation
Structures that either store food or help adsorb food for the embryo of sporophyte in a seed
Plants whose seeds are part of fruits
Plants with cones
Do plants have cell walls?
Water carrying tissue in plants
Food carrying vascular tissue in plants
Take in water and dissolved minerals that are transported to the rest of the plant, anchor the plant and support the plant
Support the leaves and reproductive structures
Male reproductive organs of flowers
Female reproductive organs in flowers
Animals that must feed on other organisms to obtain nutrients
Do not have a backbone
Have a backbone
Hard outer coverins that provide a framework of support, protect soft body tissues, prevent water loss and proved protection from predators
Grwo within an animal and protect the internal organs, provide support for the body and provide a brace for muscles to pull against
Produce both sperm and egg in the same animal body
Head end of an animal
Tail end of an animal
Backside of an animal
Underside/belly of an animal
Type of fluid filled body cavity that has tissue formed from the mesoderm
Have no tissue, not organs and most have no symmetry,
What does that name Sponge mean?
Water and wastes are expelled from the sponge through this mouth-like opening at the top
Attached to and stay in one place like sponges
Small, needle-like structures in sponges made of calcium carbonate, silica or a tough fibrous protein called spongin
Cnidarian tentacles stinging cells- contain capsules with coiled barbs and poison
Tube-like muscular organ that extends out of the mouth of the flatworm, release digestive enzymes and then sucks food into the digestive tract
group of nerve cell bodies that coordinate incoming and outgoing nerve signals
Kinds of Flatworms
Flukes, tape worms, and planarians
Kinds of Roundworms
Filarial worm, Ascarid worm, pin worm, heart worm and hook worm
In mollusks- Membrane that surrounds the internal organs and cal also secrete calcium carbonate to form a shell
Open Circulatory system
Blood is pumped out of vessels into open spaces surrounding body organs
Closed Circulatory system
Blood is confined to vessels
Slow, two shelled mollusks like clams
Head-footed mollusks like the octopus
What is the phylum of segmented worms?
Kinds of Annelids
Fan worms, Leech, Earthworm
Tiny bristles that push into the soil and anchor a worm during moment
Three body regions of Arthropods
Abdomen, Head, Thorax
Makes up the exoskeleton of arthropods
Arthropods must shed their outer coverings in order to grow
Chemicals secreted by animal species that influence the behavior of other animals of the same species
Kinds of Crustaceans
Shrimp, Crabs, Lobsters
Kings of Arachnids
Scorpions, Spiders, ticks
In echinoderms they are small, muscular, fluid-filled tubes that end in suction-cup like structures, that are used in movement, food collection and respiration
Kinds of echinoderms
Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, Sea Cucumbers, Sea Daisy, Sand Dollars, and Sea Lillies
Characteristics of Chordate
Notochord, Postanal tail, Dorsal nerve cord, Pharyngeal pouches
What replaces the notochord during embryonic development?
Group of cells that develop from the nerve cord and form portions of the brain and skull, certain sense organs and some nerve fibers
They have jaws, fins, gills and scales and live in aquatic habitats
Movable flap that covers and protects the gills in fishes
They get oxygen when water enters the mouth and flows across them.
Part of the brain that controls internal organs
Lateral Line System
Enables fish to detect movement in the water
Gas-filled space that allows a fish to control its depth
Chamber that receives digestive wastes, urinary wastes and egg or sperm before they leave the body
Transparent eyelid that can move across the eye to protect it underwater
Eardrum on the side of the head in amphibians
Animal that obtain their body heat from their external enviroment
Reproduction in Reptiles
Produce amniote eggs - egg that is covered with a protective shell and has several internal membranes with fluids contained between them
Do reptiles have scales?
How do reptiles grow?
Organism that generates its body heat internally by its' own metabolism
Specialized outgrowths of skin made up of keratin in birds
In birds it's the part of the brain that coordinates movement and balance in flight
How are birds and reptiles similar?
Aminiote eggs, skeletal feature and nesting
Main Characteristic of Mammals
Hair and Mammary glands
Meade up of a tough, fibrous protein called keratin
Eat plants and animals
Mammals that have bacteria in the cecum that help break down plant material and have a 4 chambered stomach
Sheet of muscle beneath the lungs that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity that helps carry oxygen in and out of the lungs
Part of the brain responsible for coordinating conscious activities, memory and learning
Group of cells that secrete fluid to be used elsewhere in the body
Mammals that reproduce by laying eggs
Pouched animals that have a very short gestation period like the kangaroo
Organ that provides food and oxygen to and removes waste from developing young
What did Doctor Campbell find the cure for in "Medicine Man"?
In "Medican Man", Where did Peak 37 come from?