period from 1300-1600 that involved an explosion of creativity in art, writing, and thought (started in Italy).
Term means rebirth and refers to a revival of art and learning.Renaissance art; depicted worldly, every day pictures in vivid, photographic detail; Perspective, Realism, Secularism, Humanistic, Detailed, Symmetric, Harmonic, Vivid color
the rising middle class; bankers, artisans, merchants, doctors, etc.
powerful banking family who ruled Florence in the 1400s, patrons of the arts
the start, or hub, of Italian Renaissance; started in this city because there was trade and wealth to support the growing arts.
an intellectual movement that focused on human potential and achievements. Humanists studied Greek texts to understand ancient Values and classical traditions. "man is the measure of all things"
worldly values instead of spiritual values; prominent in the Renaissance; art depicted daily things, people interested in worldly subjects
focus on individual became more a part of art and architecture; everything was to human scale
patron of the arts
Church leaders during the Renaissance who beautified Rome and other cities by spending huge amounts of money on art, those who financially supported artists.
Leonardo da Vinci
Renaissance man: a painter, sculptor, inventor, and scientist who was interested in how things worked: painted the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper
common language, understood by all, Bible and Laws were understood by a wider public
wrote The Prince in 1513 and examined the imperfect conduct of human beings. He was concerned with what was politically effective, not morally right. "the ends justify the means."
book written by Machiavelli that examines how a ruler can gain power and keep it in spite of his enemies by being strong as a lion and shrewd as a fox. It suggested that a prince must be craft enough not only to overcome others but to gain their trust. "the ends justify the means." Written for Lorenzeo de Medici
man who wrote "In Praise of Folly," a book that poked fun at the prominent people of society, using satire to make fun of the wealth-centered Church and its heads. He went against the grain of society, questioning authority of a self-centered church. Erasmus was a humanist who contradicted predestination; man had free will and control over his fate
In Praise of Folly
book written by Erasmus that poked fun at the prominent people of society using satire to make fun of the wealth-centered Church and its heads
the use of humor, irony, etc., to ridicule or criticize society, people, politicians, etc.
perfected the moveable type that was first invented by the Chinese
a printing device perfected by Johann Gutenberg that could print books 500x as fast as previous methods. Effects: spread literacy, learning, thirst for knowledge, the Bible was printed in a vernacular so that people could understand it.
leader of the Protestant Reformation, against predestination
1517; Martin Luther's public stand against selling indulgences (vs. Johann Tetzel) posted at Wittenberg Castle Church
Monarch of 1500's-1600's, casts such a shadow over the period because of her power and importance; widely credited with helping bring England to a period of national greatness. "Elizabethan Age" = "Golden Age" of England, Anne Boleyn's daughter, switches England back to Protestantism after Bloody Mary
Golden Age of England under rule of Queen Elizabeth I
Protestant leader, formed the idea of predestination, believed ideal government was theocracy, left France, was persecuted as a Huguenot and went to Geneva, Switzerland.
the idea that fate and entrance to heaven is predetermined at the moment of birth, term coined by John Calvin
material things bought as gifts that could get you "salvation"- were eventually banned because they were seen as impure ways to get penance or salvation for your sins
the thing that differences in faith centered around; Protestants: salvation is reached by faith and good works. RCC: salvation can be achieved by faith and faith alone
the idea that the bible is the highest power in the church- this idea was spread through the printing press and the moveable type and the use of the vernacular to translate the bible; more people could understand.
Emperor Charles V
(HRE) made Luther stand trial in Worms and declared Luther an outlaw (no one was to house him or give him food/shelter)
Diet/Edict of Worms
1521; meeting at Worms; Congress of Church, was convened and Luther was forced to go on trial and was convicted of Heresy. He wouldn't recant his statements and so was declared an outlaw.
Peace of Augsburg
1555; Charles V called Protestant and Catholic princes to Augsburg and it was decided that each prince would decide the religion of his state
cuius regio, eius religio
whose reign, his religion (reinforce the idea of Peace of Augsburg)
Act of Supremacy
(1534) Henry VIII called on the people to take an oath to recognize the annulment/divorce and accept Henry, NOT the Pope, as the official head of the English Church. (Parliament's role was instrumental)
(1563)produced and publicly posted to try to create a blending of Catholic and Protestant ideals so that the two religious parties could live harmoniously together; made to please both religions and avoid conflict, a middle way
a medium, a middle way, a blending of two, gave synopsis of the religions of English Catholic and Protestants
were repressed, sought a purer religion, went to Plymouth
Calvin's followers in France, clashed violently with the Catholics in Paris and 12,000 Huguenots were killed
the idea that whether or not you are granted entry to heaven (salvation) is predestined/decided by God before time
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
1572; Paris- spreads out over weeks/months, Catholics attacked and murdered Huguenots (Protestants), 12,000 were Killed
(Counter Reformation) the Reformation after start of Protestant Reformation that sought to keep Catholics remaining loyal, had to clean up their act
one of the leaders of the Catholic Reformation, wrote Spiritual Exercises, which laid out a day-by-day plan of mediation, prayer, and study, he created the Jesuit order
Society of Jesus/Jesuits
1540; Ignatius Loyola created this religious order for his followers, were missionaries and wanted to convert Protestants to Catholicism
Council of Trent
1545-1563) arguably the most important council of the Catholic Church; set out to evaluate and determine what the core beliefs of the Catholic Church were going to be:
movement in Spain to maintain Catholic orthodoxy, by Ferdinand and Isabella; drove out Jews and Muslims from Spain