Physical Science Final
|atom||(physics and chemistry) the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element|
|compound||(chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight|
|atomic mass||protons + neutrons|
|electron||negatively charged particle; located outside the atomic nucleus|
|strong nuclear force||a powerful force of attraction that binds protons and neutrons together in the nuleus|
|valence electron||an electron in the outer shell of an atom which can combine with other atoms to form molecules|
|photon||a tiny particle or packet of light energy|
|oxidation number||positive or negative number that indicates how many electrons an atom has gained, lost, or shared to become stable|
|periodicity||the repeating pattern of chemical and physical properties of the elements|
|formula mass||the sum of the average atomic masses of all the atoms represented in the formula of any molecule, formula unit, or ion|
|chemical change||a change that produces matter with a different composition than the original matter|
|products||the elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction|
|carbohydrate||compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the human body|
|lipid||macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes|
|matter||anything that has mass and occupies space|
|molecule||(physics and chemistry) the simplest structural unit of an element or compound, two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds|
|alloy||a mixture containing two or more metallic elements or metallic and nonmetallic elements usually fused together or dissolving into each other when molten|
|proton||a stable particle with positive charge equal to the negative charge of an electron|
|nucleus||the positively charged dense center of an atom|
|electromagnetic forces||associated with charged particles; electric and magnetic forces are the only forces that can both attract and repel|
|orbital||a region in an atom where there is a high probability of finding electrons|
|isotope||one of two or more atoms with the same atomic number but with different numbers of neutrons|
|group||Vertical column of elements in the periodic table|
|mole||the molecular weight of a substance expressed in grams, the SI unit used to measure the amount of a substance whose number of particles is the same as the number of atoms of carbon in 12g of carbon 12|
|molar mass||the mass in grams of 1 mol of a substance|
|physical change||a change from one state (solid or liquid or gas) to another without a change in chemical composition|
|reactants||the elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction|
|protein||any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells|
|mass||a measure of the amount of matter in an object; a fundamental property of an object that is not affected by the forces that act on the object, such as the gravitational force|
|phases of matter||The different forms matter can take; commonly occur as solid, liquid, or gas|
|element||any of the more than 100 known substances (of which 92 occur naturally) that cannot be separated into simpler substances and that singly or in combination constitute all matter|
|atomic number||the order of an element in Mendeleyev's table of the elements, the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom|
|neutron||an elementary particle with 0 charge and mass about equal to a proton|
|electron cloud||area around the nucleus of an atom where the atom's electrons are most likely to be found|
|electric force||the force of attraction or repulsion between objects due to charge|
|energy level||a definite stable energy that a physical system can have Ex. used especially of the state of electrons in atoms or molecules; "according to quantum theory only certain energy levels are possible"|
|ion||a particle that is electrically charged (positive or negative)|
|period||a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table|
|Avogadro's number||number of representative particles in a mole, 6.02 X 10^23, the # of atoms, molecules, protons, and particles in 1 mole molecule|
|chemical bond||the force that holds two atoms together|
|chemical reaction||the process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances|
|activation energy||the minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction|
|nuclei acid||a macromolecule composed of chains of monomeric nucleotide. In biochemistry these molecules carry genetic information or form structures within cells. The most common nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid|
|energy||the ability to do work or cause change|
|scientific method||In the 5-step method there is the formation of the problem, a prediction that provides explanation, a procedure used to test the ideas, the observation of results in the procedure, and a conclusion based on all of the other steps. |
1.Ask and define the question.
2.Gather information and resources through observation.
3.Form a hypothesis.
4.Perform one or more experiments and collect and sort data.
5.Analyze the data.
6.Interpret the data and make conclusions that point to a hypothesis.
7.Formulate a "final" or "finished" hypothesis.
With the investigation concluded, the published results will be verified by other investigators, and the "tested" knowledge integrated into a larger whole of scientific information.
***It is important to note that there is no one single scientific method. Every experiment is different and may or may not follow the exact steps; science is less structured than most realize.