Translation and Mutations

19 terms by naomimilrod 

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Stop Codons

UAA, UAG, UGA

Peptide Chains

Amino acids are bonded together as _____ _____ which fold into proteins

5, 3

mRNA read from _prime to_prime

A Site

One of a ribosome's three binding sites for tRNA during translation. This site in the ribosome holds the tRNA carrying the next amino acid to be added to the polypeptide chain.

P Site

one of a ribosome's three binding sites for tRNA during translation. It holds the tRNA carrying the growing polypeptide chain.

Initiation

the first phase of transcription; RNA polymerase binds to DNA @ the promoter, and unwinds the double helix

Elongation

addition of amino acids to the polypeptide chain; continues until it reaches a stop codon

Termination

last phase of transcription, stop codon

Modification

many proteins need to be chemically modified and folded, some may need to be cut into segments or have parts removed

Chaperones

"helper" proteins

Insertion

cause frameshift, nucleotides added to the sequence

Deletion

cause frameshift, nucleotides skipped in a sequence

Substitution

correct nucleotide is replaced with an incorrect nucleotide

Point Mutations

Missense and Nonsense are examples of _____ ________.

Missnese

change in an important amino acid

Nonsense

change in an amino acid to stop codon

Chromosal Mutations

larger scale mutations, includes deletions, duplications, inversions and translocations

Translocations

taking a piece and moving it to a different chromosome

Inversion

a kind of mutation in which the order of the genes in a section of a chromosome is reversed

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