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Carl Linneaus

created binomial nomenclature

taxonomy

the science of naming and classifying organisms

phylogeny

the evolutionary history of an organism

homologous structures

structures in different species that are similar because of common ancestry

embryology

study of multicellular organisms as they develop from fertilized eggs to fully formed organisms

biodiversity

the variety of species living within an ecosystem

bacteria

domain eukarya, kingdom protista
unicellular, asexual by binary fission
autotrophs; not usually harmful

virus

DNA or RNA surrounded by protein and reproduce using a host cell, parasitic

protist

domain eukarya, kingdom prostista
uni or multi cellular; auto or heterotrophs
asexual and sexual; animal, plant, and fungus like
some cause disease

fungi

domain eukarya, kingdom fungi
multicellular, heterotrophs
asexual and sexual
some are helpful and some are harmful

plant

domain eukarya, kingdom plantae
multicellular, autotrophs
asexual or sexual
classified by nonvascular or vascular

brophytes

nonvascular, seedless plants (ex. moss)

ferns

vascular, seedless (ex. clubmoss)

gymnosperms

vascular, with seeds (ex. conifers)

angiosperms

vascular, flowers and seeds (ex. apple, tulip)

xylem

tissue in vascular system that carries water around the plant

phloem

tissue in vascular system that carries nutrients around the plant

invertebrates

domain eukarya, kingdom animalia
heterotrophic and multicellular
sexual; body symmetry
classified by body, characteristics, feeding, reproduction

cephalization

concentration of nerve cells near front end of body

segmentation

repetition of body segments

asymmetry

no symmetry

radial symmetry

symmetry in a circular pattern

bilateral symmetry

right/left side symmetry

Porifera

sponges
have openings or pores everywhere
no gut; filter water

Cnidaria

sea anemone
simple, soft bodies
stinging tentacles around mouth in a circle

Worms

flatworm
cephalization, unsegmented
small organs inside

Mollusca

snail
soft with internal/external shell

Arthropoda

spider
segmentation & cephilization
exoskeleton, molting
largest phylum

Echinodermata

starfish
tube feet for eating and moving
water-filled vascular system

vertebrates

domain eukarya, kingdom animalia
heterotrophic and multicellular
have a backbone, sexual
classified by habitats and feeding

Fish

clownfish
aquatic; fins, scales, and gills
some carnivores some herbivores
eggs

Amphibians

frog
1/2 of life on land, 1/2 in water
moist skin, lay eggs in water

Reptiles

chameleon
dry, scaly skin; cold blooded
wide legs for moving fast

Birds

toucan
reptile-like; scaly skin with feathers
strong chest, light bones with air spaces

Mammals

kangaroo
mammary glands, hair, breathe air
most are omnivores; live birth
endothermic

endotherms

organisms that internally regulate body temperature (warm blooded)

ectotherms

organisms that rely on the environment and their behavior to keep warm (cold blooded)

prokaryote

unicellular organism lacking a nucleus

eukaryote

organism whose cells contain nuclei

8 characteristics of life

1. Made of one or more cells 2. Displays organization 3. Grows and Develops 4. Reproduces 5. Responds to stimuli 6. Requires Energy 7. Maintains Homeostasis 8. Adaptations evolve over time

cladogram

diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms

binomial nomenclature

two-word naming system that gives all organisms their scientific name

transpiration

loss of water from a plant through its leaves

chordate

animal with a nerve chord extending down their backbone and beyond the anus

7 taxa

kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species

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