single-celled organisms that do not have a membrane-bound nucleus. major source of food for many organisms, help many organisms digest food. play important role as decomposers of dead organic matter in the environment.
a protein-carbogydrate compound found in bacterial cell walls
archaeal group. converts hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide into menthane gas. live only in anaerobic (no oxygen) environments.
archaeal group. salt loving.
archaeal group. live in very acidic environments with very high temperatures. such as volcanic vents on land or near hydrothermal vents.
sphere shaped bacteria
cocci in chains
cocci in clusters
a bacterium that, in the gram stain process, is stained reddish-pink and that has a small amount of peptidoglycan in its cell wall
a bacterium that, in the gram stain process, is stained purple and that has a large amount of pepidoglycan in its cell wall
chemicals that inhibit the growth of or kill other microorganisms
small, circular, self-replicating loops of double stranded DNA
the outer covering of polysaccharides in bacteria. bind to the cell wall and protect the cell against drying or harsh chemicals. also helps protect a pathogenic (disease causing) bacterium from the hosts white blood cells, which could otherwise engulf the bacterium
a capsule made up of a fuzzy coat of sticky sugars. allows bacteria to connect to the surface of host cells and tissues.
short, hairlike protein structures on the surface of some bacteria. help bacteria connect to eachother and to surfaces, such as those of the host cell. can serve as a bridge to pass genetic material between bacteria.
a thick-coated, resistant structure that forms in some gram-positive bcteria when environmental conditions become harsh. it contains the cells dna to help it survive the harsh conditions.
organisms that get their carbon from other organisms
organisms that get thier carbon directly from the inorganic molecule carbon dioxide
organisms that get energy from light
organisms that get energy from chemicals taken from the environment
organisms that cannot live where molecular oxygen
can live with or without oxygen
prokaryotes that need oxygen to live
occurs when a prokaryote takes in DNA from its outside environment
the process by which two prokaryotes bind together and one cell transfers DNA to the other cell through a structure called a sex pilus
a virus obtains a small part of DNA from a host prokaryote, then copies itself inside the host, and new copies of the prokaryotic DNA are made with the viral DNA
a nonliving particle made up of mucleic acid and a protein coat or nucleic acid and lipid-protein coat. not living. do not have cytoplasm or organelles. cannot carry out cellular functions such as metabolism and homeostasis. cannot reproduce outside host cell.
the protein coat, the only layer surrounding some viruses.
a bilipid membrane that surrounds the capsid of some viruses
viral DNA that has attached to a host cell's chromosome and that is replicated with the chromosomes DNA
RNA virus that contains the enzyme reverse transcriptase, in addition to RNA
uses RNA as a template to make DNA, which then inserts into the host cell's genome. reverses the normal process of transcription (in which DNA serves a a template for producing RNA).
viruses that infect bacteria
a virus invades a host cell producing new viruses and ruptures (lyses) the host cell when releasing newly formed viruses
viruses that reproduce only by the lytic cycle
the disintegration of a cell by disruption of the plasma membrane
an infection cycle that allow viruses to hide in their host cell for days, months, or eyars.
a virus whose replication includes the lysogenic cycle
phage DNA that is integrated into a specific site of the host cell's chromosome
diseases that are caused by agents that have invaded the body
an agent that causes disease
"rules" for detirmining the cause of a disease
epithelial tissues that protect the interior surfaces of the body that may be exposed to pathogens
a response stimulated by any pathogen that gets past the skin or mucous membranes
a substance that increases blood flow to the injured area and increases permeability of surrounding caplilaries
type of blood cell that ingests and destroys pathogens and foreign matter
the most abundant type of phagocyte in the body. circulate through blood vessels, and they can squeeze through the capillary walls to reach the infection site. once there they must ingest pathogens they encounter.
type of phagocyte that engulfs pathogens and cellurlar debris
natural killer cells
large white blood cells that attack pathogen-infected cells-- not the pathogens themselves
made up of about 20 different proteins which circulate the blood and become active when they encounter certain pathogens
a protein released by cells infected with viruses
the cells and tissues that recognize and attack foreign substances in the body
the white blood cells of the immune system
a gland located above the heart, helps produce a special kind of lymphocyte
lymphocytes that are made in the bone marrow and complete their development there
lymphocytes that are made in the bone marrow and complete thier develpment only after traveling to the thymus
any substance that the immunte system can recognize and react with
the reaction of the body against an antigen
lymphocytes that will not respond the first dimte they meet with an antigen or an invading cell but will recognize and attack that antigen or invading cell during later infections
binds to a specific antigen or inactivates or destroys toxins
the ability to resist an infectious disease
the introduction of antigens into the body to cause immunity
a physical response to an antigen
a respiratory disorder that causes bronchioles to narrow
a disease in which the immune system attacks the organisms own cells