influence of military leaders, who drew up vast and complex plans for quickly mobilizing millions of men and enormous quantities of supplies in the event of war.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
assassinated on July 28, 1914, triggered the beginning of WWI; assassinated by Black Hand; Serbian terror group
The Black Hand
organization behind assassination, Serbian terrorist organization dedicated to the creation of a pan-Slavic kingdom
Ger attacks France by going through neutral Belgium; violates neutrality; was their strategy to win WWI
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire
britain, russia, france, u.s. (later)
Trenches stretch from Switzerland to Atlantic coast, no man's land (land separating the two armies with mines and barbed wires), machine guns and artillery barrages
mental illness resulting caused by the war, many soldiers who fought in the trenches got shell shock.
over the top
over the top of the trench to go through no man's land
War of attrition
wear the other side down as much as you can with weaponds until they surrender conditionally
(682) all facets of economy are mobilized for war and civilians involved too (industrialization) and whole will of people would have to be broken (no one battle) and people war and go all out
(684) councils of workers and soldiers deputies formed throughout Russia to organize strikes 1917; play important role in Bolshevik revolution; represent more radical interests of lower classes and composed many socialists
small faction of the Russian Social Democrats, under leadership of Lenin, dedicated to violent revolution, used propaganda as a means of gaining mass support through promises geared towards the needs of the people
(685) encourage rebellion ; takes control after and declares Russia a soviet republic; becomes dictator not Marxist with disastrous results; goals: 1) seize land from peasants 2) seizing factories from workers 3) immediate peace 4) export international communism; want to overthrow provisional government
Treaty of Brest Litovsk
Russia withdraws from war and lost land; good news to Germany because now can devote all to western front
U.S. president at time on war, proposed "open covenants of peace", the reductions of national armaments, "domestic safety," and self-determination of people so that all aspect of life to be to the "utmost satisfaction.", wrote the Fourteen Points
Germany tells Mexico "will you join us? we will give you what you lost" (california, etc) US gets angry
Treaty of Versailles
(p.691) Germany not involved in making with The Big Three (Wilson, Clemenceau, George) but forced to sign and unhappy; bunch of compromises met biggest demands but doesn't satisfy anyone making many unhappy; no good in between soft vs. harsh; Germany lose all colonies, no draft, limited army, pay reparations for war, limit industry; France along Rhine between Germany is demilitarized zone
Wilson's peace proposal to end WWI; self-determination/independence, causes, establish League of Nations
a system established after WWI where a nation officially administered a territory on behalf of the league of nations on way to independence. France administered Lebanon and Syria as mandates, and Britain administered Iraq and Palestine
Britain views in favor...(support you, but there are people there) issued by Britain; support Jewish homeland living in Palestine, Jews at home will more favorable to Britain's side)
(693) 1924, international commission made new plan for reparations reduced them and stabilized German payments on its ability; granted initial loan for German recovery à heavy American investments in Europe and helped create prosperity from 1924-1929
(696) the reform program implemented by President Franklin Roosevelt in the 1930s, which included large public works projects and the introduction of Social Security, worst depression effect, FDR, active govt intervention in economy supposed to employ people, some social reforms but didn't solve unemployment problems
John Maynard Keynes
(695-696) British Cambridge economist , wrote "general theory of employment, interest and money" in 1936; condemned traditional view that in a free economy depressions should be left to work themselves out and argued unemployment was not from overproduction but from decline in demand and demand increased by putting people back to work (defict spending)
(724) financial clique, business cartels formed in Japan during the Meiji era and outlawed following World War II
(697) gained complete control of the communist party after trotsky, eliminated old bolsheviks of revolutionary era from politburo and established evil and powerful dictatorship; PURGES (killed thousands of people)
"superior" race, what Hitler wanted
Non aggression pact
alliance between GER and USSR in WWII because Hitler didn't want to fight a 2 front war.
New racial laws made by Hitler that denounced german jews and stripped them of their citizenship. Didn't allow them to have sex with non-jews or marry non-jews.
November 9, 1938. means night of broken glass. When Jewish businesses, synagogues, etc. burned down.
Leader of the revolution in Spain, his revolution brought Mussolini and Hitler closer together.
when the Allied powers gave Hitler a little bit of what he wanted to prevent war; however, Hitler took all he wanted and appeasement failed to stop the war
lightning war, talking about how quickly the Nazi's were taking over Europe
One of the largest military evacuations in history, after the Germans surrounded the allied forces, they managed to evacuate 300,000 people.
DDAY; US and British invasion, June 6, 1944
When Hitler decides to send all Jews to Concentration camps. first started experimenting with gas. the strong would work and the week were killed
replaced Chamberlain as BR prime minister, was opposed to appeasement
December 7, 1941, the Japanese bombed the US naval base
April, Truman gets news that America has the atomic bomb. He sends last warning to Japan. Stalin is also the only original ally left (Now Atlee, Truman, and Stalin). FDR dies Churchill voted out.
The most important naval battle in WW2, destroyed all of Japan's 4 aircraft carriers and equaled america and japan's naval powers.
US president after FDR, opposed Stalin, made the decision about the atomic bombs
The domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life (SPEC minus -s) of another country or region
the ideology that calls for government ownership in the means of production and distribution of goods. An economic system in which the government owns and controls some key factors of production and influences how basic economic questions are answered.
ideology that everything should revert to traditional ways. Favored obedience to political authority and religion must be organized
an ideology that the government should be as non-involved as possible while still having a constitutional state. No uniform religion and a free trade economy. Freedoms: assembly, speech, press, from arrest. Men with property had vote.
a sense of country pride; popular after French Revolution (showed what a country could do when they banded together)
"politics of reality," practical not idealogical; Otto Von Bismarck (German)
"white man's burden"
the European idea that the white people/settlers had to take care of the natives (uncivilized) and make them civilized; spread of Christianity (influence of 3 C's)
(1884) led by German chancellor Otto von Bismarck. About rules for annexations in Africa for everybody to abide by (scramble for Africa). Also worked on ending slave trade.
a tribe of Afrikaans speaking farmers. Migrated away from settlements and went on what is called "The Great Trek". Fled away from Europeans to continue their own destiny. Set up Transvaal, their own independent nation. Boer War - war fought between Transvaal/Orange Free State against Britain. The war was guerilla tactics. The British won in 1902.
A Scottish doctor who was a missionary. He felt as though he should spread Christianity all throughout Africa. By exploring he discovered Victoria Falls. Morally opposed to slavery.
Ottoman army officer who took control of the Suez region from Britain. He helped Egypt "evolve" into a modern nation through education and military reform.
British prime minister to Cape Colony. Led British miners against Afrikaner miners. Would "conquer" most of Africa for Britain. at first an entrepreneur, started diamond mine in S. Africa
(1857) The soldiers Indian soldiers rebelled and fought against the British, which led to reforms in the army and distribution of different religions throughout the army. (b/c the British had made gun caps that had to be bitten off that contained animal fat which went against both religions.)
Neo-colonialism (economic imperialism)
Latin America. After their independence American and European investors were attracted to the upcoming LA economy because they had resources no one else had. Europeans started immigrating into LA.
issued by President James Monroe and recognized the freed Latin American states and Europe could not intervene in their political affairs anymore.
This means that Jews and Christians and Muslims were equal before the law; it used to be that Muslims were better than Christians and Jewish
These changes upset the Muslim Law (Shiria)
Members of the Ottoman Empire, which, at the beginning of the 20th century, was beginning its decline. the "sick man of Europe"
term meaning giving Europeans power in their govt
book described a system where there is not private ownership of land or capital. Marx thinks that everybody should own the business and then everybody can get some of the profit that comes along with it. According to Marx and Engles; all of history is the struggle between social classes - the only way to fix it is for the workers to have a revolt
an international movement that called for the establishment of a Jewish state or a refuge in Palestine
a war between Great Britain and China that began in 1839 as a conflict over the opium trade and ended in 1842 with the Chinese cession of Hong Kong to the British, the opening of five Chinese ports to foreign merchants, and the grant of other commercial and diplomatic privileges in the Treaty of Nanking.
China's policies to increase the Industry, Agriculture, Technology, National defense.
rebel groups started rebelling against their Communist-influenced leaders. Saddam Hussain and Osama Bin Laden were supported by the US in their attempts and were given American weaponry.
first secretary to the Communist Party. He tried to relax all restrictions on civil liberties.
Wrote "One Day in the Life of Ivan Denishovick" which was about the concentration/labor camps in Russia. He won the Nobel Price and Khrushchev had the book published as part of the De-Stalinization program. "Gulag Archipelago" had him exiled from Russia.
film writer and author from China. He was probably the most prominent "literature of the wounded" writer in the 1980s. His film was removed from circulation. He was condemned by the government because of his movie.
Battle of Dien Bien Phu
French troops lost to the Vietminh Front
Bay of Pigs
A complete failure by the US government. It was going to be an invasion of Cuba of the immigrants and exiles from Cuba to the US. They would be equipped with military weapons and were sent to overthrow the Cuban government. Castro knew and was waiting for them.
a response to the barricading of Berlin by Russia to the rest of the Allied Powers. They flew in roughly 13,00 0 tons of supplies to Berlin everyday to keep the population surviving. Proved to Stalin that the Allies still held interest in Berlin.
wall separating East and West Berlin. Allowed no travel.
Russian writer who had a book of his published in Italy to avoid the Soviet officials. He won the Nobel Prize for it but the government would not allow him to accept the award because he went against Russian protocol and government.
The president of the russian Republic as of June 1991.
USSR policy. states that the USSR has the right to take over Czechoslovakia.
US will use military power to guard the oil in the ME for Western use.
Czechoslovakian protests against violations of human rights.
Chinise anti-Communist nationalist leader
Congress of People's Deputies
More democratic association who worked on voting for daily rights instead of legal rights.
no longer letting the Soviets take more land for their "buffer zone"
Cuban Missile Crisis
Cuba invited Russia to keep nuclear missiles there for them to fire at the US if they felt they needed too. There were now nuclear warheads 90 miles away from the US.
Khrushchev's attempt to remove anything and everything wit Stalin-oriented impacts from Soviet society
December 25, 1991
Fall of communism in Russia.
removing any pro-Nazi elements in German society
The secretary of the communist party until he was kicked out of office. When Mao died he took over the government with the help of his following pragmatics and ended the Cultural Revolution.
French term for tension reduction
if both countries have nuclear weapons then they will discourage the other country to attack.
female writer in China. She was for the revolution but when she found out about its true colors she wrote against the party officials. She was arrested and sentenced to hard labor. She was released in the 70s after Mao died.
One event triggers another which triggers a reaction which triggers a new event.
Russian women would work a full work day and then go home to take of the family.
Successor of Ulbricht in Eastern Germany. Started using a secret police. He was never politically challenged during his reign.
Cuban revolutionary. Communist regime whom had support from Khrushchev.
Geneva Conference 1954
Peace conference between France and Ho Chi Minh. France wanted Ho Chi Minh to stop attack French troops and Ho Chi Minh wanted the troops gone.
US diplomat who believed that if they keep the Soviets in a certain amount of space that their corrupt system would destroy itself.
German Democratic Republic (GDR)
Government set up in Eastern Germany by the Soviets after Western Germany joined together
openness, especially in the perestroika. Meant that the citizens were to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the Soviet Union.
assignment of quotas a Russian factory manager had to reach each month or year
Great Leap Forward
Similar to the collectivization in Russia, but on a bigger scale. the giant communes were responsible for administrative an economic tasks in the village as well.(in china under Mao)
Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
political movement to make China's government strictly communist.
Harry S. Truman
the President of the United States after FDR. He did not like Stalin and was suspicious of everything he did.
A treaty signed by European and American participants in WWII saying that the WWII borders were going to be the borders.
American emissary sent on a mission to China to learn about China and the USSR's current tense relations.
Ho Chi Minh
Leader of the Indochinese Communist party that took control of central and northern Vietnam.
A result from Poland's success in getting democratic policies. Hungary also wanted to become democratic but the USSR went into Hungary with troops to disband the revolution. The US could do nothing to help because they were behind the Iron Curtain.
National Communist leader in Hungary. He tried to satisfy the demands of the citizens and could not. He also tried to get free elections but the USSR would not allow it.
Iranian Hostage Crisis
The US embassy was taken over by Afghani students and was held hostage for 444 days.
figurative description of what the Soviets were doing to Europe by Winston Churchill. It was a wall that was dividing Europe in East and West under the Soviet's control.
successor of Den Xiaping. Under him the economy flourished while all political speaker-againsts were punished harshly.
US president who aimed to protect human rights.
John F. Kennedy
Elected as president in 1961. Assassinated in 1963.
Yugoslavian Communist Resistance leader. He was pro-Stalin but he would not allow Stalin to take over Yugoslavia.
Korean War (38th Parallel)
The 38th parallel divided the country into North and South Korea. Two different governments developed, communist and democracy. The north (Communists) invaded the south because of the opposing government viewpoints.
Alexei Kosygin and Leonid Brezhnev's policies to reboot the Soviet economy by starting the collectivization over again but giving factory managers more rights to the way they ran their business. Overall it did not work very well.
Leader of the labor force Solidarity.
successor of Khrushchev who was the main plotted in getting him out of office.
Little Red Book
Mao's textbook that parents were supposed to teach their kids and the military.
Mutual Assured Destruction. Both countries will destroy each other.
Communist leader in China who overthrows the government and drives out the nationalists. He turns China into a Communist nation.
(European Recovery Program) The plan where the US sent roughly 13 billion dollars to ALL war torn European countries. Russia and its "allies" denied all donations.
The fear that everybody who was slightly suspicious was Communist.
secretary of the Communist Party of the USSR in 1985. Became the first president of the USSR and was the one who ended the Cold War.
An assumed inferiority in the number of intercontinental ballistic missiles with nuclear warheads available to the United States as compared to the number available to the Soviet Union at the end of the 1950s. This issue was raised by President John F. Kennedy as a political ploy during the presidential election of 1960, but was subsequently shown never to have existed.
the North Atlantic Treaty Organization was a military alliance federation. Included: Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands, France, Britain, Italy, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Iceland, US, Canada along with Turkey and West Germany who joined later.
A new and more mild form of political and economic recover for Socialist nations.
Ngo Dinh Diem
Leader of the anti-Communists in South Vietnam. Refused to hold elections so they would not be outvoted by Communists.
Nicaragua (Sandinista & Contras)
Attempt to overthrow the Nicaraguan government/Somoza dictatorship
successor of Georgy Malenkov who was the successor of Stalin. He tried to reduce tensions between the US and the USSR.
an organization composed of neutralist leaders to avoid succumbed to either of the two major power blocs (Communist or Capitalist).
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
A treaty signed by all the superpowers saying that no one was allowed to test nuclear weapons. China did not follow the order.
for two nations to tolerate each other enough to where nothing will result in war.
People's Liberation Army
Army of Communists in China. Had roughly one million troops.
reconstruction of the USSR economy.
Portioning of Germany
division of German into four major zones each controlled by either US, France, England, or Russia
time of political, economic, and cultural liberation and reform in Czechoslovakia.
Pravda & Izvestia
Truth and News. The only two Russian newspapers allowed for sale and they were controlled by the party and by the government.
revolutionary units. They were young citizens of China who were mobilized to deal with the discontent of the nation.
President of the US in 1969. President during the majority of the Vietnam War. He slowly pulled out American troops.
US president who was very anti-Communist. He said the USSR was evil.
Rural Responsibility System
The farmers now held land under rent. you paid the rest in crops if you had extras you could keep them for yourself or you could sell them freely.
Antiballistic Missile Treaty. The first arms-reduction talk.
SDI (Star Wars)
US space defense program. Russian missiles would be detected and shot down from space before they ever reached the US. Now the US could fire back at the Russians and they couldn't do anything about it.
Polish labor movement that tried to work against Communism.
First space satellite. Made by the Soviets. Freaked out the US because now USSR was ahead of them.
when the Egyptians tried to nationalize the suez canal and the british and the french troops in to try to stop them.
A small island off the coast of China where Chiang and his followers fled to with the rise of Chinese Communism. Became known as "New China".
student protest in Beijing which resulted in the arrest of a lot of Chinese students by the military.
Truman's announcement that he would supply money to any European countries that said they were anti-Communists and were being threatened by the Communists.
revolutionary Vietnamese Communists living in South Vietnam.
Vietnamese nationalist alliance
the fear of having another war like the guerilla tactics in Vietnam.
Military alliance between Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union.
the new communist leader in Poland. He attempted to ease the Polish conflicts. He was later allowed to adopt slightly more democratic policies.
Indian nationalist leader. He demanded things of the Indian government such as boycotting all European products and independence, Built Hinduism with nationalism, opposed women's education, very traditional, against BR colonization
Toured India selling British war bonds. Held peaceful boycotts, strikes, non-cooperation and mass demonstrations. Helped India gain independence
the creation of 2 nations in the subcontinent of India: one secular, one Muslim
Settled vs. non-settled colonies
settled colonies were colonized by european powers but were then continued to be dominated by the powers, with the minority population of the europeans residing there in charge. the non-settled colonies were controlled by the european powers, however they were controlled via indirect rule
political leader in Ghana who led masses of people against the British government, peacefully. In 1957, he became to prime minister of Ghana.
violently led Kenyan African Union against the British, for the Land Freedom Army
Racial segregation in 1948 in Africa. Whites got better jobs. Political representation/voting denied to black Africans. Can't hold mass meetings/make political parties or labor unions
Afrikaner National party
National Party in South Africa devoted to gaining independence from British
"truth force", Group led by Ghandi that held peaceful boycotts, strikes, non-cooperation and mass demonstrations
Egyptian rebellion in 1906 exemplified the racial arrogance of the European colonizers
the forced removal (or annihilation) of a targeted population from its homes, villages, and cities
human rights laws drawn up in Helsinki in 1975. Decided on by 35 nations
Osama Bin Laden
was the leader of Al Qaeda and the attack on 9/1. Supported by US briefly during Afghanistan issue during cold war.
the killings of a group based on race or other hatred. Also used against political enemies (Nanking, Holocaust, Rwanda, Cambodia, Bosnia)