on the 18th century European monarchs who was inspired by Enlightenment ideas to rule justly and respect the rights of subjects.
a King or Queen who has unlimited power and seeks to control all aspects of society.
a direct vote in which a country's people have the opportunity to approve or reject a proposal.
the idea that monarchs are God's representatives on earth and are therefore answerable only to God.
a Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements.
Bill of Rights
the first ten amendments to the U.s. Constitution, which protect citizens' basic rights and freedoms.
in Marxist theory, the group of workers who would overthrow the czar and come to rule Russia.
Checks and Balances
measures designed to prevent any one branch of government from dominating the others.
a major change in European thought, starting in the mid-1500s in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning to accepted beliefs.
a policy in which a nation forces or encourages a subject people to adopt its institutions and customs.
a philosophy based on the idea that people give meaning to their lives through their choices and actions.
a system of government in which power is divided between a central authority and a # of individual states.
Scorched- Earth Policy
the practice of burning crops and killing livestock during wartime so that the enemy cannot live off the land.
Theory of Evolution
the idea, proposed by Charles Darwin in 1859, that species of plants and animals arise by means of a process of natural selection.
an agreement by which people define and limit their individual rights, thus creating an organized society or government.
a logical procedure for gathering information about the natural world, in which experimentation and observation are used to test hypotheses.
a document requiring that a prisoner be brought before a court or judge so that it can be decided whether his or her imprisonment is legal.
a declaration issued by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln in 1863, stating that all slaves in the Confederate states were free.
the belief that people should be loyal mainly to there nation-that is, to the people with whom they share a culture and history- rather than to a king or empire.
an economic system in which factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all.
the application of Charles Darwin's ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies- particularly as justification for imperialist expansion.
a Spanish soldiers, explorers, and fortune hunters who took part in the conquest of the Americas in the 16th century.
a policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically, or socially.
"Sphere Of Influence"
a foreign region in which a nation has control over trade and other economic activities.
in the British empire, a nation (such as Canada) allowed to govern its own domestic affairs.
the global transfer of plants, animals, and diseases that occurred during the European colonization of the Americas.
"Jewel in the Crown"
the British colony of India- so called because of its importance in the British Empire both as a supplier of raw materials and as a market for British trade goods.
a policy of treating subject people as if they were children, providing for their needs but not giving them rights.
a control over internal matters granted to the residents of a region by a ring government.
the transatlantic trading network along which slaves and other goods were carried between Africa, England, Europe, the West Indies, and the colonies in the Americas.
the voyage that brought captured Africans to the West Indies and later to North and South America, to be sold as slaves- so called because it was considered the middle leg of the Triangular Trade.
the idea, popular among mid-19th-century Americans that it was the right and the duty of the United States to rule North America from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean.
a U.S. policy of opposition to European interference in Latin America, announced by President James Munroe in 1823.
Balance of Power
a political situation in which no one nation is powerful enough to pose a threat to others.
a movement founded in the 1890s to promote the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
one of the fenced-in or nedged-in fields created by wealthy British landowners on land that was formerly worked by village farmers.
the system of growing a different crop in a field each year to preserve the fertility of the land.
the shift, beginning in England during the 18th century, from making them by machine.
an economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit.
Factors of Production
the resources- including land, labor, and capital- that are needed to produce good and services.
an adoption of the social, political, or economic institutions of Western- especially European or American- countries.
a member of a loosely organized fighting force that makes surprise attacks on enemy troops occupying his or her country.
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain's economy.
Favorable Balance of Trade
an economic situation in which a country sells more goods abroad than it buys from abroad.
the idea that government should not interfere with or regulate industries and businesses.
an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought.
a foreign policy based on a consideration of the strategic locations or products of other lands.
the region of southeastern Europe now occupied by Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, and the European part of Turkey, and the former republics of Yugoslavia.
a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the United States supported Cubans' fight for independence.
Treaty of Tordesillas
a 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
Peace of Augsberg
a 1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler.
Edict of Nantes
a 1598 declaration in which the French King Henry IV promised that Protestants could live in peace France and could set up houses of worship in some French cities.
Congress of Vienna
a series of meetings in 1814-1815, during which the European leaders sought to establish long-lasting peace and security after the defeat of Napoleon.
a formal agreement-especially one between the pope and a government, dealing with the control of church affairs.
the use of troops or ships to prevent commercial traffic from entering or leaving a city or region.
a conflict, lasting from 1899 to 1902, in which the Boers and the British fought for control of terrirtory in South Africa.
a 16th century movement for religious reform, leading to the founding of Christian churches that rejected the pope's authority.
a 16th century movement in which the Roman Catholic Church sought to make changes in response to the Protestant Reformation.
"overlord," or "one with power"; title for Ottoman rulers during the rise of the Ottoman Empire.
members of the society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic religious order founded by Ignatius of Loyola.
a group of people who sought freedom from religious persecution in England by founding a colony in the early 1600s.
a group of people who, in 1620, founded the colony of Plymouth in Massachusetts to escape religious persecution in England.
the doctrine that God has decided all things beforehand, including which people will be eternally saved.
Open Door Policy
a policy, proposed by the United States in 1899, under which all nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
a Japanese form of poetry, consisting of three unrhymed lines of five, seven and five syllables.
a wave of senseless panic that spread throughout the French countryside after the storming of the Bastille in 1789.
a person who leaves his native country for political reasons, like the nobles and others who fled France during the peasant uprisings of the French Revolution.
Reign of Terror
the period, from mid-1793 to mid-1794, when Maximilien Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary creatures were executed.
the theory, proposed by Jeremy Bentham in the late 1700s, that government actions are useful only if they promote the greatest good for the greatest # of people.
a machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution.
in the Ottoman Empire, the policy of king boys from conquered Christian peoples to be trained a Muslim soldiers.
an economic system in which all means of production-land, mines, factories, railroads, and businesses- are owned by the people private property does not exist, and all good and services are shared equally.
a period of European history, lasting from about 1300 to 1600, during which renewed interests in classical culture led to far-reaching changes in art, learning, and views of the world.
an 18th century European movement in which thinkers attempted to apply the principles of reason and the scientific method to all aspects of society.
in the middle Ages, the earth-centered view of the universe in which scholars believed that the earth was an immovable object located at the center of the universe.