History 2nd Semester Exam(Mr. Swanson's class only)

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All of the subjects and definitions for second semester exam.

Mt. Everest in Asia.

Highest mountain on Earth.

The Himalayas in Asia.

Highest mountain range on Earth.

The Andes in South America.

Longest mountain range on Earth.

The Nile in Africa.

Longest river on Earth.

The Amazon in South America.

Second longest river on Earth.

The Sahara in Africa

Largest desert on Earth.

The Atacama in South America.

"Driest" desert on Earth (no rain for 400 yrs)

The Caspian Sea.

Largest lake on Earth.

The Superior in North America.

Second largest lake on Earth.

The Baikal.

Deepest lake on Earth.

The Kilimanjaro.

Largest (highest) mountain on the African Continent.

The Victoria.

Largest lake on the African Continent.

The Rocky(ies).

Longest mountain range on North American Continent.

The McKinley.

Highest mountain on North American Continent.

The Mississippi.

Longest River on North American Continent.

The Mexico.

Largest gulf on Earth.

The Hudson.

Largest bay (shoreline miles) on Earth.

The Dead.

Lowest "point of land" on Earth is located at this sea.

The Angel Falls in South America and in Venezuela.

Highest waterfall in Earth.

The Amazon in South America

The river with the most "water-flow" volume on Earth.

Greenland. (Note: Greenland is not a country.)

Largest island on Earth.

Madagascar.

Largest island country on Earth.

Russia.

Largest country on Earth.

Canada in North America.

Second largest country on Earth.

China in Asia.

Most "populated" country on Earth.

The Pacific.

Largest ocean on Earth.

The Philippine.

Largest sea on Earth.

Asia.

Largest continent on Earth.

Antarctica.

Coldest continent on Earth.

The Mariana in the Pacific.

"Deepest Spot" (Trench) in the Earth's Oceans.

Aborigine

a member of any of the native peoples of Australia.

Maori

a member of a Polynesian people who settled in New Zealand around A.D. 800.

Enlightened Despot

on the 18th century European monarchs who was inspired by Enlightenment ideas to rule justly and respect the rights of subjects.

Absolute Monarchy

a King or Queen who has unlimited power and seeks to control all aspects of society.

Plebiscite

a direct vote in which a country's people have the opportunity to approve or reject a proposal.

Divine Right

the idea that monarchs are God's representatives on earth and are therefore answerable only to God.

Democratization

the process of creating a government elected by the people.

Humanism

a Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements.

Theocracy

a government controlled by religious leaders.

Annul

to cancel or set aside.

Bill of Rights

the first ten amendments to the U.s. Constitution, which protect citizens' basic rights and freedoms.

Proletariat

in Marxist theory, the group of workers who would overthrow the czar and come to rule Russia.

Checks and Balances

measures designed to prevent any one branch of government from dominating the others.

Scientific Revolution

a major change in European thought, starting in the mid-1500s in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning to accepted beliefs.

Assimilation

a policy in which a nation forces or encourages a subject people to adopt its institutions and customs.

Existentialism

a philosophy based on the idea that people give meaning to their lives through their choices and actions.

Federal System

a system of government in which power is divided between a central authority and a # of individual states.

Scorched- Earth Policy

the practice of burning crops and killing livestock during wartime so that the enemy cannot live off the land.

Theory of Evolution

the idea, proposed by Charles Darwin in 1859, that species of plants and animals arise by means of a process of natural selection.

Social Contract

an agreement by which people define and limit their individual rights, thus creating an organized society or government.

Scientific Method

a logical procedure for gathering information about the natural world, in which experimentation and observation are used to test hypotheses.

Habeas Corpus

a document requiring that a prisoner be brought before a court or judge so that it can be decided whether his or her imprisonment is legal.

Boxer Rebellion

a 1900 revolt in China, dimed at ending foreign influence in the country.

Sepoy Mutiny

an 1857 rebellion of Hindu and Muslim soldiers against the British in India.

Suffrage

the right to vote.

Emancipation Proclamation

a declaration issued by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln in 1863, stating that all slaves in the Confederate states were free.

Nationalism

the belief that people should be loyal mainly to there nation-that is, to the people with whom they share a culture and history- rather than to a king or empire.

Nation-state

an independent geopolitical unit of people having a common culture and identity.

Terrorism

the use of force or threats to frighten people or governments to change their policies.

Socialism

an economic system in which factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all.

Social Darwinism

the application of Charles Darwin's ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies- particularly as justification for imperialist expansion.

Conquistadors

a Spanish soldiers, explorers, and fortune hunters who took part in the conquest of the Americas in the 16th century.

Annexation

the adding of a region to the territory of an existing political unit.

Colony

a land controlled by another nation.

Penal Colony

a colony to which convicts are sent as an alternative to prison.

Imperialism

a policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically, or socially.

"Sphere Of Influence"

a foreign region in which a nation has control over trade and other economic activities.

Dominion

in the British empire, a nation (such as Canada) allowed to govern its own domestic affairs.

Columbian Exchange

the global transfer of plants, animals, and diseases that occurred during the European colonization of the Americas.

Raj

the British-controlled portions of India in the years 1757-1947.

"Jewel in the Crown"

the British colony of India- so called because of its importance in the British Empire both as a supplier of raw materials and as a market for British trade goods.

Paternalism

a policy of treating subject people as if they were children, providing for their needs but not giving them rights.

Extraterritorial Rights

an exemption of foreign residents from the laws of a country.

Home Rule

a control over internal matters granted to the residents of a region by a ring government.

Secede

to withdraw formally from an association or alliance.

Atlantic Slave Trade

the buying, transporting, and selling of Africans for work in the Americas.

Triangular Trade

the transatlantic trading network along which slaves and other goods were carried between Africa, England, Europe, the West Indies, and the colonies in the Americas.

Middle Passage

the voyage that brought captured Africans to the West Indies and later to North and South America, to be sold as slaves- so called because it was considered the middle leg of the Triangular Trade.

Manifest Destiny

the idea, popular among mid-19th-century Americans that it was the right and the duty of the United States to rule North America from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean.

Monroe Doctrine

a U.S. policy of opposition to European interference in Latin America, announced by President James Munroe in 1823.

Balance of Power

a political situation in which no one nation is powerful enough to pose a threat to others.

Anti-Semitism

prejudice against Jews.

Zionism

a movement founded in the 1890s to promote the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine.

Enclosure

one of the fenced-in or nedged-in fields created by wealthy British landowners on land that was formerly worked by village farmers.

Crop Rotation

the system of growing a different crop in a field each year to preserve the fertility of the land.

Industrial Revolution

the shift, beginning in England during the 18th century, from making them by machine.

Capitalism

an economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit.

Factors of Production

the resources- including land, labor, and capital- that are needed to produce good and services.

Westernization

an adoption of the social, political, or economic institutions of Western- especially European or American- countries.

Guerrilla

a member of a loosely organized fighting force that makes surprise attacks on enemy troops occupying his or her country.

Continental System

Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain's economy.

Favorable Balance of Trade

an economic situation in which a country sells more goods abroad than it buys from abroad.

Laissez Faire

the idea that government should not interfere with or regulate industries and businesses.

Mercantilism

an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought.

Urbanization

the growth of cities and the migration of people into them.

Geopolitics

a foreign policy based on a consideration of the strategic locations or products of other lands.

Balkans

the region of southeastern Europe now occupied by Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, and the European part of Turkey, and the former republics of Yugoslavia.

Pacific Rim

the lands surrounding the Pacific Ocean- especially those in Asia.

Opium War

a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the United States supported Cubans' fight for independence.

Treaty of Tordesillas

a 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.

Peace of Augsberg

a 1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler.

Edict of Nantes

a 1598 declaration in which the French King Henry IV promised that Protestants could live in peace France and could set up houses of worship in some French cities.

Congress of Vienna

a series of meetings in 1814-1815, during which the European leaders sought to establish long-lasting peace and security after the defeat of Napoleon.

Concordat

a formal agreement-especially one between the pope and a government, dealing with the control of church affairs.

Blockade

the use of troops or ships to prevent commercial traffic from entering or leaving a city or region.

Boer

a Dutch colonist in South Africa.

Boer War

a conflict, lasting from 1899 to 1902, in which the Boers and the British fought for control of terrirtory in South Africa.

Utopia

an imaginary land described by Thomas More in his book Utopia- hence, an ideal place.

Reformation

a 16th century movement for religious reform, leading to the founding of Christian churches that rejected the pope's authority.

Indulgence

a pardon releasing a person from punishments due for a sin.

Catholic Reformation

a 16th century movement in which the Roman Catholic Church sought to make changes in response to the Protestant Reformation.

Anglican

relating to the church of England.

Janissary

a member of an elite force of soldiers in the Ottoman Empire.

Sultan

"overlord," or "one with power"; title for Ottoman rulers during the rise of the Ottoman Empire.

Jesuits

members of the society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic religious order founded by Ignatius of Loyola.

Heliocentric Theory

the idea that the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun.

Puritan

a group of people who sought freedom from religious persecution in England by founding a colony in the early 1600s.

Pilgrim

a group of people who, in 1620, founded the colony of Plymouth in Massachusetts to escape religious persecution in England.

Predestination

the doctrine that God has decided all things beforehand, including which people will be eternally saved.

Secular

concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters.

Open Door Policy

a policy, proposed by the United States in 1899, under which all nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.

Haiku

a Japanese form of poetry, consisting of three unrhymed lines of five, seven and five syllables.

Kabuki

a type of Japanese drama in which music, dance, and mime are used to present stories.

Great Fear

a wave of senseless panic that spread throughout the French countryside after the storming of the Bastille in 1789.

Coup D'Etat

a sudden seizure of political power in a nation.

Emigres

a person who leaves his native country for political reasons, like the nobles and others who fled France during the peasant uprisings of the French Revolution.

Reign of Terror

the period, from mid-1793 to mid-1794, when Maximilien Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary creatures were executed.

Utilitarianism

the theory, proposed by Jeremy Bentham in the late 1700s, that government actions are useful only if they promote the greatest good for the greatest # of people.

Guillotine

a machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution.

"Devshrime"

in the Ottoman Empire, the policy of king boys from conquered Christian peoples to be trained a Muslim soldiers.

Ghazi

a warrior for Islam.

Communism

an economic system in which all means of production-land, mines, factories, railroads, and businesses- are owned by the people private property does not exist, and all good and services are shared equally.

Mestizo

a person of mixed Spanish and Native American ancestry.

Mulattos

persons of mixed European and African ancestry.

Creoles

in Spanish colonial society, a colonist who was born in Latin America to Spanish parents.

Peninsulares

in Spanish colonial society, colonists who were born in Spain.

Skepticism

a philosophy based on the idea that nothing can be known for certain.

Vernacular

the everyday language of people in a region or country.

Renaissance

a period of European history, lasting from about 1300 to 1600, during which renewed interests in classical culture led to far-reaching changes in art, learning, and views of the world.

Enlightenment

an 18th century European movement in which thinkers attempted to apply the principles of reason and the scientific method to all aspects of society.

Geocentric Theory

in the middle Ages, the earth-centered view of the universe in which scholars believed that the earth was an immovable object located at the center of the universe.

Romanticism

an early-19th-century movement in art and thought, which focused on emotion and nature rather than reasons and society.

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