100 Days - Waterloo - St. Helena
After Napoleon's defeat at Russia in 1812 and abdication in 1814, the Quadruple Alliance, meeting at the Congress of Vienna, was moderate and fair toward France, not seeking revenge in any way. However, after restoring the Bourbon dynasty and putting old, ugly Louis XVIII on the French throne, Napoleon escaped his kingdom at Elba, hearing of political unrest in France. By the end of the frantic Hundred Days, the allied forces - all united against Napoleon - crushed his band of followers at Waterloo on June 18, 1815, and imprisoned him on the island of St. Helena, rather than granting him his own tiny state and allowing him to keep his imperial title, as they had directly after his abdication one year earlier.
Foreign minister of Great Britain who sought a European balance of power, in which no single state or combination of states would dominate Europe, through his work at the Congress of Vienna. Signed a secret treaty with Klemens von Metternich of Austria and Charles Talleyrand of France directed against Prussian and Russian territorial aggression---diplomatic crisis --- Prussia and Russia relaxed their demands to avoid war
Represented France at the Congress of Vienna, Sought a balance of power,Successfully exploited divisions among the allies and pinned responsibility for the Napoleonic Era on Napoleon alone. (France thus emerged from the peace conference with much of its territory and power intact. )-In the face of aggressive Russian and Prussian territorial demands, he signed a treaty with Castlereagh and Metternich, which almost led to war.
Alexander I of Russia
Wanted to restore and claim the ancient kingdom of Poland. -The Prussians agreed to Alexander's plan, on the condition that they could take the large and wealthy kingdom of Saxony for their own. -Such greed on the parts of both countries worried the allies at the Congress of Vienna, who worried that such territorial expansion would upset the balance of power. -Castlereagh and Metternich signed a secret treaty with Charles Talleyrand of France, directed against Russia and Prussia.
Balance of Power
International equilibrium to prevent the domination of Europe by any single state or combination of states. -Example: diplomatic crisis and threat of war with Prussian and Russian territorial demands.Congress system= Even after the Congress of Vienna succeeded in creating a stable peace settlement - even with the return of Napoleon and his immediate defeat - the members of the Quadruple Alliance agreed to meet periodically to discuss international issues and maintain European peace.-Settled many diplomatic crises long into the nineteenth century with international conferences and balance-of-power diplomacy.
700 million francs/ army occup. 5 years
At first, after Napoleon's abdication, the allied powers at the Congress of Vienna were lenient toward France, leaving it with its historical boundaries and not requiring France to pay any war reparations. -However, after Napoleon escaped from his "comic kingdom" on the island of Elba, returning to France with a band of followers and was once again defeated at Waterloo, the allied powers were slightly harsher, although still relatively lenient. -France lost a little territory, had to pay an indemnity of 700 million francs, and had to allow for and support an occupation army for five years.
Austria's conservative foreign minister, Klemens von Metternich, blamed liberalism for a generation of war and bloodshed through revolutionary America and France, detested national self-determination, and fought to repress such ideas his whole life. -For example, through the German Confederation, Metternich issued the Carlsbad Decrees in 1819, which required the 38 German member states to exterminate subversive ideas in newspapers and universities, as well creating a permanent committee with spies and informers to investigate and punish all liberal, revolutionary organization or movement. -In 1815, Metternich formed the Holy Alliance of Austria, Prussia, and Russia, on the grounds that liberal and revolutionary movements across Europe must be repressed.
Settlement at the Congress of Vienna
Following Napoleon's abdication on April 4, 1814 Allied powers initially quite lenient towards defeated France-Reduced it only to its 1792 size-Defensive barriers against renewed French aggression:Uniting Belgium and Holland into more formidable kingdom in North Prussia received territory to stand as "sentinel on the Rhine" against France--Question of division of territory between Russia and Prussia diplomatic crisis and threat of war--Consequently both countries moderated their demands-- Russia accepted small Polish kingdom--Prussia received only 2/5 of Saxony Balance of Power principle: the allied states strived for international equilibrium and repressed any single state or combination of states from dominating Europe.
The Quadruple Alliance
Britain, Prussia, Austria, and Russia met at the Congress of Vienna after the abdication of Napoleon to fashion a general peace settlement. The allies combined leniency toward France with strong defensive measures, motivated by self-interest and traditional ideas about the balance of power. --No war reparations (before Napoleon returned)--Defensive barriers against future French aggression, combining Belgium and Holland into a more formidable kingdom in the North, and granting Prussia in the East considerable territory to stand as the "sentinel on the Rhine."
Spanish/ 2 Sicilies nationalism - congress of Troppau
Metternich's crusade against all liberal and revolutionary European movements is exemplified in his repression of radical liberals in 1820. Revolutionaries in Spain and the southern Italian kingdom of the Two Sicilies forced their monarchs to grant liberal constitutions. --Metternich called a conference at Troppau with Alexander I of Russia, in which he proclaimed the principle of active intervention to maintain all autocratic regimes whenever they were threatened. --Under Metternich's command, Austrian troops restored Ferdinand I to the throne of the Two Sicilies, while French armies restored the Spanish regime.
The Ottoman Turks dominated and ruled the Greeks since the fifteenth century. Greeks still survived as a people, united by the Greek language and the Greek Orthodox Church. The nationalist movement of the nineteenth century greatly influenced the Greeks, who soon desired independence from the Turks. The emerging Greek nationalism of early nineteenth century eventually led to the creation of secret societies and to revolt in 1821, led by Greek nationalist:
Originally against all form of revolution, the Great Powers refused to aid Ypsilanti. However, domestic pressure soon forced these European nations to support the Greek cause. -In 1827, Great Britain, France and Russia, after the Turks refused to accept an armistice, crushed the Turkish fleet at Navarino. -Greece was declared independent in 1830, with a German prince installed as the king of the new country two years later.
A U.S. Doctrine, published on December 2, 1923, which announced that the European Powers should not interfere with the Americas.-Seen as a moral objection to colonialism. This Doctrine proclaimed the United States wish to stay neutral in European Conflicts unless American rights were disturbed.-It also said that the U.S. would view any European conflict that took place on American soil as a threat to U.S. national security.--The U.S. used the Monroe Doctrine to side with whatever side of Caribbean conflicts would accommodate its economic policy.--The Monroe Doctrine was a defining event of U.S. foreign policy and influenced later U.S. foreign policy such as isolationism.
Created at the Congress of Vienna, from the remains of the Hapsburg Empire.-It included parts of Prussia and Austria, as well as around thirty-six smaller states.-Some of the provinces in it include: Holstein, Hanover, Luxembourg, Saxony, Bohemia, Bavaria, and Wurttemberg. The most powerful state in it was Austria, with Prussia usually following Austria's lead. Under Austria's influence the German Confederation pursued reactionary policies and tried to stamp out liberalism inside and outside of its borders. After 1848 Austria and Prussia vied for control of the German Confederation.-Prussia gained the upper hand because of its influence in the Zollverein. The Danish ruled Schleswig and Holstein, areas inhabited by Germans; Holstein was part of the German Confederation.-The German Confederation gained control of these provinces by war. The German Confederation dissolved after the Austro-Prussian war.
Issued on September 20, 1819 by the German Confederation; they were Metternich's idea. These decrees forced out reformers in governments, censored the press, and rooted out unwanted ideas in universities.-They placed inspectors in universities in order to weed out liberal or radical teachers and students. The decrees set up a permanent committee of spies and informers to investigate and punish any liberal or radical organizations.
Metternich, like Burke, like Hobbes
Prince Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar Fürst von Metternich-Winneburg-Beilstein (1773 - 1859) AKA Prince Klemens von Metternich was a conservative aristocrat passionately devoted to the defense of his class and its interest. Metternich like Burke was against the French Revolution and viewed it as a violent rebellion against traditional authority.-Burke is viewed as one of the fathers of modern conservatism.-Both Metternich and Burke were against democracy and favoured a central authority rule. Hobbes emphasizes a strong central authority, which is similar to Metternich's views about a conservative, autocratic government.
3 Major Ethnicities in the Austrian Empire
The three main ethnicities of the Austrian Empire were: the Germans, the Hungarians (Magyars), and the Czechs.-The Germans accounted for one fourth of the population even though they long dominated the empire. They were situated mainly in Austria and parts of Bohemia.-The Hungarians dominated Hungary even though they were not the majority of the population there.-The Czechs were concentrated in Bohemia and Moravia. All of these different ethnic groups created tensions which made Metternich and the conservative government uneasy.
"Austria is the hinge upon which the fate of Europe must ultimately depend." EXPLAIN (p.759)
During and after the congress of Vienna Metternich and the Austria he represented were the foundation of conservatism in Europe.--In order to prevent liberal revolutions throughout Europe Austria led Prussia and Russia in a campaign against liberalism-The Holy Alliance, an agreement between Austria, Prussia, and Russia to band together to crush liberalism, was the first step of this campaign. -In 1821 Austria insisted that liberal revolts be surpressed by active intervention.--Austrian Forces squashed the revolutionaries in Italy, and France squashed the revolutionaries in Spain.The Carlsbad Decrees (see above) was another step in this campaign.
Where was there liberalism in 1815 - Which countries?
Liberalism had been successfully realized in the United States by the American Revolution. Great Britain had realized much of liberalism with its parliament and historic rights of English men and women. France had realized much of liberalism with its Constitutional Charter.
Classical Liberalism AKA Manchester School
Stresses the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, natural rights, constitutional limitations of government, the protection of civil liberties, and an economic policy with heavy emphasis on free markets. Laissez faire - Economic policy involving unrestricted private enterprises and no government interference in the economy. Individual freedoms - freedom of the press, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, and freedom from arbitrary arrest. Seen as the fusion of political liberalism and economic liberalism. Private property rights essential to individual freedom. Emphasizes equality before the law and equality of opportunity, not necessarily material equality.
Adam Smith - Wealth of Nations
Adam Smith (1723-1790) was a Scottish philosophy professor and published his Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations in 1776. He founded modern economics and formulated the idea of a free economy.-He was highly critical of mercantilism and the attempt to regulate trade and the economy.-He preferred free trade competition and the "invisible hand" of the self-regulating economy.These ideas would give all citizens a fair and equal opportunity to do what they did best. Smith was an advocate of free trade, capitalism, and classical liberalism. He argued that freely competitive private enterprises would result in greater income for everyone, not just the rich. The Wealth of Nations is considered to be the first modern book on economics and the first book defending the free market economy.
Thomas Malthus (1766 - 1834) wrote his Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) which argued that population would always grow faster than the food supply.--Malthus thought that the only way to ward of population growth was war famine, and disease.--Malthus thought that population growth could be restrained if men and women married late in life.-Malthus did not think that this would happen because men and women were attracted to each other and would marry early and have many children. Malthus blamed the lower classes for societal ills, and thought that only they should practice late marriage and sexual abstinence in order to ward of population growth. Malthus's ideas greatly influenced Darwin's idea of natural selection.
David Ricardo (1772 - 1823), a wealthy English stockbroker and economist spelled out the pessimistic implications of Malthus's theory. The "iron law of wages" said that because of the pressure of population growth wages would always be just high enough to keep workers from starving. Ricardo's Principles of Political Economy and Taxation introduces the theory of comparative advantage.-This theory is important in modern trade because it explains how one country can benefit by specializing in one product and relying on trade to fulfill its needs. Ricardo was an advocate of free trade and an opponent of protectionism. Ricardo's and Malthus's ideas set the tone which caused economics to be dubbed "the dismal science".
Liberals and who should be able to vote
Liberals wanted representative government instead of an autocratic monarchy and wanted equality before the law instead of legally separate classes. In the early nineteenth century liberal ideas became more closely associated with narrow class interests.-Liberals generally favoured property qualifications attached to the right to vote.-This limited the vote to well-to-do aristocratic landowners, substantial businessmen, and successful members of other professions.-Workers and peasants, lower middleclass shopkeepers, clerks, and artisans did not own property and would not gain the right to vote. The United States had moved most towards liberalism followed by Great Britain and France.
Republicanism and Democrats
Liberalism (liberty and equality) -Representative government as opposed to autocratic monarchy -Equality before the law as opposed to legally separate classes -Specific individual freedoms (freedom of press, speech, assembly, from arbitrary arrest) -Economic principles criticizedLaissez-faire economics philosophy-"classical" liberalism-Unrestricted private enterprise and no government interference in the economy -Typically liberals favored representative government but wanted property qualifications attached to the right to vote-Limiting the vote to well-to-do aristocratic landowners, substantial businessmen, and successful merchants-Identified with the middle class-Enemies of conservatism wanted to take liberalism farther liberals and radical, democratic republicans could join forces against conservatives only up to a point
Nationalism: cultural identity and/or political unity
Each people had its own genius and its own cultural unity-Common language, history, and territory -More a dream than a reality-Only the elite spoke a standardized written language-Local dialects-Nationalism divided states as much as it unified them-A variety of ethnic groups shared the territory of most states Nationalists usually sought to turn the cultural unity into a political unity-Sought to make the territory of each people coincide with well-defined boundaries in an independent nation-state-The political goal of nationalism made it so explosive -Development of industrial society helped foster nationalism
Jules Michelet - The People
-French historian Wrote The People in 1846 Every citizen "learns to recognize his country...as a note in the grand concert; through it he himself participated and loves the world." Early nationalists usually believed that every nation, like every citizen, had the right to exist in freedom and to develop its character and spirit The liberty of the individual and the love of a free nation overlapped greatly in the early 19th century
Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1872) - Listening to the Past
A great Italian patriot, the leading prophet of Italian nationalism and unification Believed that progress for one people would also contribute to the progress of all humanity, a Europe of independent nation-states would provide the proper framework for securing freedom, democracy, social justice, and international peace Banished from Italy in 1830, founded a secret society called Young Italy to fight for Italian unification and a democratic republic Wrote The Duties of Man
good and bad of nationalism
Good==United people who might not otherwise be united under a common cause ==Sparked successful revolutions (e.g. American and French Revolutions) Bad===Divided peoples just as much as it unified them /Sparked unsuccessful revolutions
French Utopian socialists believed in government planning-Government planning-The government should rationally organize the economy and not depend on destructive competition to do the job-Greater economic equality-Desire to help the poorThe rich and the poor should be more nearly equal economically-Government regulation of property-Private property should be strictly regulated by the government or it should be abolished and replaced by state or community ownership
The key to progress was proper social organization-Parasites (court, aristocracy, lawyer, churchmen) give way to the doers (scientists, engineers, industrialists)-Doers would carefully plan the economy and guide it forward by undertaking huge public works projects and establishing investment banks Stressed that every social institution should have as its main goal improved conditions for the poor
Charles Fourier (1772-1837)
Socialist critic of capitalism Described a socialist utopia in mathematical detail-Hated the urban wage system--Envisioned 1,620 people living communally on 5,000 acres devoted to a combination of agriculture and industry Believed in the total emancipation of women--Thought that most marriages were only another kind of prostitution--Called for the abolition of marriage, free unions based only on love, and sexual freedom -Thought to be shocking and immoral the socialist program for the liberation of women and workers appeared as dangerous and revolutionary
Louis Blanc - Summer of 1848 in Paris (1809-1865)
Focused on practical improvements Organization of Work (1839)-Urged workers to agitate for universal voting rights and to take control of the state peacefully-The state should set up government-backed workshops and factories to guarantee full employment-the right to work had become as sacred as any other right
Wrote the pamphlet What is Property? (1840)-Property was profit that was stolen from the worker, who was the source of all wealth-Feared the power of the state-Considered an anarchist
The economic form of liberalism "classical" liberalism Unrestricted private enterprise and no government interference in the economy Adam Smith-A Scottish philosophy professor -The first to formulate the idea of a free economy-Wrote Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776)-Founded modern economics-Critical of mercantilism and its attempt to regulate trade and economic activity -Believed in free competition and the "invisible hand" of the self-regulating market, which would give all citizens a fair and equal opportunity to do what they did best-Argued that freely competitive private enterprise would result in greater income for everyone, not just the rich
Karl Marx (1818-1883)
Wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) in conjunction with Friedrich Engels -Society split between the bourgeoisie (middle class) and the proletariat (modern working class) -The proletariat would conquer to bourgeoisie in a violent revolution -The proletariat would grow in size and class-conciousness -The proletariat would be aided by a portion of the bourgeoisie who had gone over to the proletariat -United sociology, economics, and all human history -Synthesized French utopian socialists, English classical economics, and German philosophy Influenced by Hegel
Friedrich Engels (1820-1895)
The Communist Manifesto-1848 with Karl Marx The Conditions of the Working Class in England-during Industrial Revolution-charged the middle classes with mass murder, robbery and all other crimes-believed that the new poverty of industrial workers was worse than the old poverty of cottage workers-believed the blame should be placed on capitalism
Strengths and weaknesses of Marx's theories
who a person is is determined by where and when he is — social context takes precedence over innate behavior; or, in other words, one of the main features of human nature is adaptability work is a social activity and that the conditions and forms under and through which people work are socially determined and change over time. means/forces of preoduction, such as land, natural resources, and technology, that are necessary for the production of material goods, and the realtions of production, in other words, the social and technical relationships people enter into as they acquire and use the means of production. Together these comprise the mode of production; Marx observed that within any given society the mode of production changes- Marx believed that the means of production change more rapidly than the relations of production (for example, we develop a new technology, such as the Internet, and only later do we develop laws to regulate that technology). For Marx this mismatch between (economic) base and (social) superstructure is a major source of social disruption and conflict Marx did not understand classes as purely subjective (in other words, groups of people who consciously identified with one another). He sought to define classes in terms of objective criteria, such as their access to resources. For Marx, different classes have divergent interests, which is another source of social disruption and conflict. Conflict between social classes being something which is inherent in all human history- he believed that at his time, the society was split distinctly into the middle class(bourgeoisie) and the working class(proletariat) predicted that proletariat would conquer the bourgeoisie in a violent revolution
Marx's adaptation of Hegel
Hegel believed that each age was characterized by a dominant set of ideas, which produces opposing ideas and eventually a new synthesis-history has a pattern and a purpose Marx agreed with this theory, but believed that the driving force behind these changes was due to economic relationships between classes Marx also believed that at his time, it was the bourgeoisie's turn to give way to the socialism of revolutionary workers-believed to be an irrefutable brilliant interpretation of humanity's long development
Rousseau-forerunner of romanticism
In his main writings Rousseau identifies nature with the primitive state of savage man. Later he took nature to mean the spontaneity of the process by which man builds his egocentric, instinct based character and his little world. Nature thus signifies interiority and integrity, as opposed to that imprisonment and enslavement which society imposes. To go back to nature means to restore to man the forces of this natural process, to place him outside every oppressing bond of society and the prejudices of civilization. It is this idea that made his thought particularly important in Romanticism Passionate advocate of feeling, freedom, natural goodness Romantic movement was characterized by spontaneity, unrestrained imagination, the overflowing of emotions
Sturm and Drang
"Storm and Stress" name of a movement in German literature and music taking place from the late 1760s through the early 1780s in which individual subjectivity and, in particular, extremes of emotion were given free expression in response to the confines of rationalism imposed by the Enlightenment
Gericault (1791-1824)-romantic artist
French painter who focused greatly on military themes most widely known for his Raft of Medusa, which depicted the aftermath of a contemporary French shipwreck in which the captain had left the crew and passengers to die-incident became a national scandal, and Géricault's dramatic interpretation presented a contemporary tragedy on a monumental scale
Delacroix (1798-1863)-romantic artist
greatest romantic painter in France believed to be the illegitimate son of French foreign minister Talleyrand master of dramatic, colorful scenes that were meant to stir the emotions fascinated with remote and exotic subjects e.g. lion hunts in Morocco passionate spokesman of freedom- seen in his painting Liberty Leading the People, which celebrates the nobility of popular revolution; also seen in his painting Massacre at Chios which portrays the Greek struggle for freedom against the Ottoman Turks
Constable (1776-1837)-romantic artist
fascinated by nature along with Turner, one of the most influential painters in England during the Romantic period painted gentle landscapes-conveyed the idea that human beings were one with the environment greatly influenced by Wordsworth(see below) when compared with Turner's work, it demonstrates the large range of emotions and how they were portrayed in the romantic period
Joseph Mallard Turner (1775-1851)-romantic artist
fascinated by nature one of the most notable painters in England during the Romantic period depicted nature's power and terror-often depicted wild storms and sinking ships as favorite subjects when compared to Constable's work(see above), it demonstrates the emotional range of the romantic movement
English poets- Wordsworth, Keats, Byron, Shelley
Britain was first country where romanticism flourished in poetry and prose Wordsworth active by 1800 and was then followed shortly by Bryon, Shelley and Keats William Wordsworth (1770-1850)-deeply influenced by Rousseau and the spirit of the early French Revolution-published Lyrical Ballads- abandoned flowery classical conventions and instead used ordinary speech and endowed simple subjects with majesty-believed poetry was the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings
Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832)-romantic literature
personified the focus of the romantic movement on history as a child, loved old folk tales and poems of Scottish history deeply influenced by poet and dramatist Johann Goethe- Scott translated Goethe's Gotz von Berlichingen composed long narrative poems and a series of historical novels excelled in recreating the spirit of great historical events, especially those of Scotland
German romantic poet and dramatist (1749-1832) influenced English romantic Walter Scott most famous work was Gotz von Berlichingen- a play about a sixteenth-century knight who revolted against centralized authority and won individual freedom one of the key figures of German literature and the movement of Weimar Classicism in the late 18th and early 19th centuries
Relation: Romantic Poet and Writer. Greatest in both poetry and prose. Hunchback of Notre Dame and his other novels exemplified the romantic fascination with fantastic characters, exotic historical settings, and human emotions. Equated freedom in literature with liberty in politics and society.
George Sand a.k.a. Amandine Aurore Lucie Dupin
Relation: Romantic writer. Preferred men's clothing and had notorious affairs, showed her individualism. Lelia is a semi-autobiographical novel that delved deeply into her quest for sexual and personal freedom, reflects her discontent on the oppression of women.
Relation: Romantic Composer Not much to say. Very much like Beethoven and other composers. Focused on the intensity and emotion of music rather than the technical notes, etc.
Relation: Romantic Pianist Greatest pianist of the era, swooned after to the degree of rock stars and celebrities today. o An example of the growing prestige of music and musicians because of its great range and intensity that was characteristic on the romantic music during this time. Able to transport the listener into ecstasy and hysteria through his playing.
Later Beethoven, Schumann, Schubert, Brahms, Bruckner, Mahler
Relation: Romantic musicians and composers Beethoven: -Greatest composer of the age-Broke classical forms and style-Used contrasting themes and tones to produce dramatic conflict and inspiring resolutions. Others: practically all just other examples of how romantic music is different from classical. All you really need to know is that they broke the outlines and rules, and made it more emotional and harmonic. They're not even mentioned in McKay, so I don't think you need to know them that well. Just learn to recognize the names as Romanticists.
1815 marked the end of the Napoleonic era. Just remember that the Continental System was directly before 1815. Napoleon I needed to subdue Britain because it opposed France's territorial expansion; had a war against each other. -He forced the nations on continental Europe (Austria, Prussia, Russia, Spain, etc) to embargo British goods, this strategy was called the Continental System.-Hard to enforce, harmful to continental trading, and highly unpopular. -Russia eventually went against the system in 1811, Napoleon pegged Alexander I of Russia as the scapegoat for the failure of the Continental System. \ -Led to invasion of Russia in 1812 that would lead to Napoleon's downfall.
Great Britain was one of the only countries to not have a revolution during these times. The repeal of the Corn Laws and the appearance of others were some of the reasons why. Corn Laws regulated the trade of foreign grain. When peace came to G.B. (meaning that grain can be imported again) the aristocracy refused to have the Laws repealed because that would mean the prices would go down. It would benefit everyone BUT the landed aristocracy. The repeal of the Corn Laws (1845) reflected the waning power of the aristocracy.
Parliament passed the Six Acts in 1819.-Placed controls on a heavily taxed press and practically eliminated all mass meetings among other things. Six Acts was a response to the protest in St. Peter's Fields in Manchester.
This protest led to the government issuing the Six Acts. Also known in the book as the Battle of Peterloo. An orderly protest that was savagely broken up by armed cavalry. The reason for protest was for the repeal of the Corn Laws which brought widespread unemployment and postwar economic stress. The protest was held by mostly urban laborers, who were supported by radical intellectuals.
: Reform of the poor laws were one of many things that protestors called for in G.B. in the 1820s, directly after the Six Acts. acted as social security and provided aid for the low income workers in Great Britain.
Difference between Whigs and Tories in 1820s
Relation: the 1820s era in Britain are more closely related to 1848 than to 1789. Tories were the more conservative of the two, fearful of the radical movements that were occurring abroad and at home. -Battle of Peterloo and Six Acts were examples of the Tories' determination to repress and stand fast. While both were led by great aristocrats, the Whigs were more responsive to commercial and manufacturing interests.-They were more in tune with the workers. More open to economic liberalism and laissez-faire. -Whigs were the ones that convinced the king to pass the Reform Bill of 1832.
Reform Bill of 1832
Relation: Reform Bill was one of the main reasons why Great Britain didn't have a revolution in 1848, like continental Europe. Initially rejected by the House of Lords in 1830 when presented by the Whig ministry. It was passed when king promised to create enough new peers to pass the law.-Reworded: The House of Lords was bullied into agreeing to the law so that their little elitist group won't be overrun with plutocrats or manufacturers. -The threat of new peers was used against the Lords anytime they disagreed to anything thereafter. After the Bill, House of Commons gained more power than the House of Lords, who practically faded into the background. -There was a redistribution of the seats in Parliament because of the ability to threaten the creation of new peers. It reflected the shift in population to the northern manufacturing counties and the gradual emergence of an urban society. -The use of mass politics and the emergence of responsive governments was an effect of the Reform Bill
electoral districts that had very few voters and that the landed aristocracy had bought and sold represented aristocracy's power before the liberal reforms in the beginning of the 19th C After the Reform Bill of 1832, these rotten boroughs were eliminated-new industrial areas gained representation in the Commons-helped to curb the supremacy of the aristocracy-helped the shift toward more representative gov't (particularly more representative of working classes)
Inspired by the economic distress of the working class in the 1830s and 1840s-formed mainly of the working poor-their core demand was universal male (not female) suffrage-saw complete political democracy and rule by the common people as the means to a good and just society Chartists form petitions for right to vote-First formed most serious petition in 1839-another petition in 1842, then again in 1848-Parliament rejected all 3 petitions-However, Chartist learn more about mass politics showed emerging trend toward representative gov't and mass politics in the 19th C-additionally, many of these working class people joined the Anti-Corn Law League
Anti-Corn Law League
founded in Manchester in 1839 -many working class people joined middle-class manufacturers in this league formed crusade of liberals who argued that lower food prices and more jobs in industry depended on repeal of Corn Laws-Ireland's potato crop fails in 1845-Famine prices for food, and even famine seemed likely in England-Cries to repeal Corn Laws thus intensified with dire situation
Factory Act of 1833
limited factory workday for children ages 9-13 to 8 hours, and for children ages 14-18 to 12 hours--came out of encouragement from manufacturers such as Robert Owen-he had raised the age of employment in his millsalso promoted education for young children--also workers testified at hearings about the abominable conditions in factories-pressed Parliament to pass corrective laws thus this act was passed children under 9 were then to be enrolled in elementary schools that factory owners were required to establish employment of children declined rapidly-pattern of whole families working together in the factory was broken-efficiency required standardized shifts of all workers
Mines Act of 1842
prohibited underground work for all women as well as for boys under 10-came from demands from middle-class men- did not like seeing women in work place- women often worked shirtless some thought this encouraged increased sexual relations with other male workers- did not want girls working past puberty Effects- some women protested against being excluded from coal mining, which paid higher wages than most other jobs open to working-class women- most were pleased with the law, because it encouraged their role as caregivers for the family- representative of the increasing gender division/separate spheres in the workplace
Repeal of Corn Laws 1846
Tory prime minister Robert Peel joined with the Whigs to repeal the Corn Laws in 1846- also wanted to allow imports of grain- England is able to successful repeal laws, escape famine Effects- liberal doctrine of free trade becomes sacred to the British dictates much of their policy in the 2nd half of the 19th-showed increasing influence of working class people on gov't-Tory aristocrats were becoming more responsive to needs of other classes began to compete for their support
Population in Ireland grows rapidly up to 1840, with it dependency on potato crops also increases From 1820 onward, deficiencies and disease in potato crops became more common-1845 and 1846 potato crop failed in Ireland- Again, in 1848 and 1851- Wide spread starvation and mass fever epidemics followed Britain's Poor Handling of Situation Britain, committed to rigid laissez-faire ideology- Hoped repeal of Corn Laws would alleviate situation- Overall, was slow in acting- When it finally did act, its relief efforts were inadequate-- gov't continued to collect taxes--- landowners demanded rent-- tenants who could not pay were evicted, homes destroyed
Ten hours Act of 1847
limited workday for women and young people in factories to ten hours led to continual legislation regulating factory conditions showed increasing political power of working classes -Tory aristocrats compete with middle class for support of working class-Healthy competition encouraging to Great Britain's evolution in 19th C
Louis XVIII's Constitutional Charter - only 100,000 could vote
Louis XVIII's Charter of 1814 Charter was essentially a liberal constitution-economic and social gains made by middle class and peasantry were protected-intellectual/artistic freedom permitted-parliament w/ upper and lower houses was created Louis XVIII's charter was not democratic-100,000 of the wealthiest males out of total pop. of 30 million have right to vote-However, these "notable people" who were able to vote did come from varied backgrounds-old aristocracy was minority within voting population-Charles X was not happy about that
determined reactionary who wanted to re-establish the old order in France/was not happy with lack of old aristocracy in voting population crowned in lavish ceremony in 1824/repudiated the Constitutional Charter in 1830--stripped much of the wealthy middle class of its voting rights--censored the press--this action received with outrage (particularly from upper middle class) in "3 glorious days" gov't collapsed--Paris boiled w/ rev. excitement ----- Charles fled-------Upper middle class situates Louis Philippe on the vacant throne
Revolution of 1830
Gov't collapsed 3 days after Charles repudiates Constitutional Charter-Louis Philippe now situated on throne--he accepts Constitutional Charter of 1814--he admits he is "merely king of the French people"--Little change is actually made--voted is extended from 100,00 to only 170,000--wealthy notable elite tightens control as old aristocracy retreats--republicans, democrats, social reformers, and the poor of Paris were bitterly disappointed
Delacroix's Liberty Leading the People
Eugene Delacroix most moving and celebrate romantic painter in France-Master of dramatic, colorful scenes that stirred the emotions-Fascinated with remote and exotic subjects-Also a passionate spokesman for freedom-his masterpiece, Liberty Leading the People, painted in 1830-celebrated the nobility of popular revolution in general-particularly, celebrated the revolution in France
-The ruler of France from 1830-1848 established a constitutional monarchy in France. -quoted himself as "King of the French people". accepted the Constitutional Charter of 1814; a liberal constitution made by Louis XVIII, and adopted the Flag of the French Revolution. --Despite Louis Philippe actions they were merely symbolic, and France was fundamentally unchanged
July Monarchy/ Bourgeois Monarchy
- nickname of the Monarchy in France under Louis Philippe. monarchy appeased the middle class or Bourgeois in replacing the nobles. bourgeois under this "bourgeois monarchy" they tightened their control by trying to keep the status quo, and narrowly Liberal institutions
Prime minister of France prior to the Revolution of 1848 attempted to stop the revolution devoted conservative, and refused have a democratic and liberal government fled to England during the revolution.
Second Republic of 1848
Second Republic ruled during the start of the Revolution of 1848 -ended when Louis Napoleon or Napoleon III seized power Second Republic was composed of the liberal and moderate middle class who saw universal male suffrage as the ultimate concession to be made toe popular forces-opposed any radical measures from Radical republicans causing a tension between liberals and radicals.
Liberal moderate republicans vs. Radical republicans
- tension between the Liberal moderate republicans and the Radical republicans. Radical republicans were influenced by the utopian socialists-dissatisfied with the conditions of the urban poor -wanted some type of form of socialism established in the government--Radical republicans wanted to have a government that would benefit the poor and protect the poor from the competitive capitalist economy.-Liberals wanted no such thing and tensions ran high eventually both groups came to a compromise by having national workshops
Louis Blanc's workshops
Socialist idea derived by Louis Blanc who originally wanted to have workshops to be an alternative to capitalist employment, and eventually move toward a new noncompetitive order. Louis Blanc's idea of workshops was later used in France during the Second Republic or the 1848 revolutions in France as a way to compromise the liberals with the radicals.-National workshops were basically a large program of "pick and shovel" public works. -The workshops were later abolished because of the workshops stirred and spread radical ideas that threatened the moderate liberal government.
A revolt during the month of June as a result of the abolishment of national workshops. This event ended the liberal capitalist and the radical socialists tension ending in victory for liberalism and Capitalism.-Also with the June Days it led to having a new constitution demanding a strong executive, which led to the rise of Louis Napoleon.
Second Republic of France's President after the revolution of 1848 and became president till 1851. -Established the Second Empire and became Emperor of the French Empire from 1852 to 1871. -He led France into becoming a Democracy, and improved the economy of France
Revolution of 1848 in Hungary part of Austria
The Revolution of 1848 involved in Hungary declaring independence from Austria. Revolution later failed because the Austrians exploited the fears of the minority groups into rebelling against the Hungarians. -Hungarians failed to gain the support of the army/church for the Hungarian cause which led to the failure of the revolution and victory for the reaction of the Austrians
Franz Joseph -1848-1916
Emperor of the Austrian Empire he put down the revolution occurring in Hungary.
Frederick William IV of Prussia
Ruler of Russia from 1840 to 1861 promised to grant Prussia a liberal constitution and to merge Prussia into a new national German state that was to be created. -His attempt to unite and rule Germany excluding Austria failed because of Austria's intervention into dividing Germany to being once again a German confederation.
Bismarck vs. Frankfurt Assembly in 1848
Liberalism fails to unify Germany-Conservatives (Bismarck) see liberalism as not the way to unify Germany-Frankfurt assembly tries to unify Germany => offer Fredrick William IV the throne => refuses-Assembly collapses without the Prussian support
Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in Europe?
expanding Atlantic economy of the 18th century-Britain = mercantilist country-cheap to transfer good across water-no tariffs-productive agriculture-second only to Dutch in agricultural productivity-price of food decrease => families have extra money to spend on commercial goods industrial leadership-effective central bank-well-developed credit markets-domestic economy operated free of government (for the most part)-large class of hired agricultural laborers
John Kay's Flying Shuttle pg.639 - study that section pg.643
throw shuttle back and forth between threads with one hand (in a loom) allowed faster weaving and larger cloth (double productivity)-not too popular among weavers (thought it would steal their jobs => more efficient = less people needed to generate same amount of work)
James Hargreaves- spinning jenny 1765
simple and inexpensive -early models => six to twenty-four spindles were mounted on a single carriage, and each spindle => each spindle spun a fine thread (in other words, a multi-spooled spinning wheel) women moved the carriage back and forth with one hand and turned a wheel to supply power with the other (double productivity)-apparently "male weavers could not keep up with the vastly efficient female weavers"
Richard Arkwright - water frame 1765
capacity of several hundred spindles-demanded much more power (water power) => required large specialized mills, factories that employed 1,000 workers from the beginning-spin only course, strong thread => then put out for respinning on hand-powered cottage jennies
- mule 1790 defects in spinning jenny => promoted to make more efficient device 1779 => create device which spun yarn suitable for use in manufacture or muslin => known as the muslin wheel and later the spinning mule
widows and unmarried women who spun for a living often recruited into a family enterprise by the wife of the family
Edmund Cartwright - power loom
perhaps pirated design/idea-barber-turned-manufacturer-mechanical looms => beginning of mechanical work/aid, no longer just human labor
Charcoal as fuel in England
wood supply falling short => turn to coal--first used in the Middle Ages for heat 1640s - most homes in London were heated with coal--Provided heat for making beer, glass, soap, and other products NOT used to produce mechanical energy or to power machinery--Huge potential-Hard-working miner - dig 500 pounds of coal a day using hand tools--Even an extremely inefficient converter (transforms only 1 percent of heat energy in coal into mechanical energy
Steam Engine - Newcomen/Savery 1700
more coal => deeper mines => water fill into mines => needed to be taken out (by means of horses)-need to solve growing problem => Thomas Savery and Thomas Newcomen invent first steam engine (inefficient at first)-burn coal to produce steam
James Watt - 1770s (1736-1819)
Employed at University of Gaslow as skilled craftsman making scientific instruments-Repair a Newcomen engine being used in a physics course => recognized as a waste of energy could be reduce with a separate condenser-Invention, patented in 1769, increase efficiency of steam engine
(1781-1848)Self-taught English engineer and the principal inventor of the steampowered railroad locomotive.-Invented "The Rocket" in 1825
"The Rocket" 1825
Invented by George Stephenson-Europe's first locomotive--ran at 16 mph on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the first important railroad (1830)--Liverpool + Manchester railway financial/technical success; encouraged more railways to be built
Impact of RR—also on imperialism 1880s
lower transportation costs, larger markets, and cheaper goods-reduced cost/uncertainty of shipping overland cheaper transportation cost larger markets larger/sophisticated factories cheaper goods--railroad building took workers from their rural life and made them more inclined to become urban dwellers--railroad changed the outlook and values of the entire society-revealed power and increased speed of the new age (Industrial Revolution)--Impact on Imperialism==railroad conquest of distance facilitated growth of trade (a primary economic motive for imperialism)==railroad, the steamship, refrigeration, and other technological innovations revolutionized trade patterns.
London Exposition of 1851 - Crystal Palace
Britain, having established industrial preeminence, organized the first world's fair in 1851, aka Crystal Palace Exhibition--Crystal Palace architectural work made entirely of the abundant glass and iron reflected the growth of industry and population in Britain and confirmed that Britain was the "workshop of the world" symbols of technology/progress took center stage and served as examples for the continental countries to imitate
Impact of Industrial Revolution on per capita income and pop.
Per Capita Income-In Britain, as a whole, people increased their wealth and national income greatly--All European states (and US, Canada, Japan) dramatically raised per capita income in 19th century, compared to non-industrialized countries such as China or India Population-Increased dramatically; better pay meant more goods/food and increasing likelihood of families--Factories encouraged large families--Would lead to problems in urban cities such as Manchester, which suffered from overcrowding, disease, and poor sanitation
Agents of industrialization: workers, entrepreneurs, gov't support
WorkersArtisans and skilled mechanics brought British industrial secrets to other parts of Europe, and were powerful force in spread of early industrialization-Britain, knowing value of their knowledge, tried to make it illegal for skilled workers to leave, but many snuck out--Ex.: John Cockerill created a large industrial enterprise in Belgium which produced machinery, steam engines, and locomotives, and also established modern ironworks and coalmines------Became industrial nerve center which gathered new information from British workers who came to illegally work Entrepreneurs----Talented entrepreneurs sped up the process of industrialization Ex.: Fritz Harkort - German business entrepreneur who wanted Germany to catch up with Britain Wanted to build steam engines lacked resources + skill (laborers), and paid great expense to get them Suffered huge financial losses, forced to back out of co. in 1832 Career illustrates great efforts of entrepreneurs and difficulty of duplicating British achievements Gov't Support-Tariff protection:High tariffs on cheaper foreign (British) goods to protect economy-Built roads and canals:Improve transportation trade and mobilityFinancing railroads:-1-Pioneered by Belgium state-system stimulated development of heavy industry and allowed Belgium to become early indust. Leader -2Prussia reduced risk of railroad investors by ensuring state treasury financial back-up on interest and principal on RR bonds -3France funded building of roadbed (bridges and tunnels)
Prussian economist (1789-1846)--Believed industrialization would advance welfare of the nation and protect its political independence--Argued for development of national economic system--economic nationalism--denounced free trade, wanted high protective tariff to encourage development of rival industries against Britain--National System of Political Economy (1841) - focused on practical policies such as railroad building and the tariff--Supported the formation of a customs union that created a free trade zone among member German states Zollverein
1834 --goods could move among the German member states without tariffs, but goods from other nations were subject to a uniform tariff---promoted economic integration and laid basis for Germany's later political unity (i.e. conflict between Prussia + Austria, etc.)
Role of banks such as Credit Mobilier
more important role in industrialization on the Continent than in Britain--former banks were private/ partners were mostly conservative b/c of risk of unlimited financial loss/ dealt exclusively with rich clients + big merchants--Belgian banks pioneered limited liability (lose only what you invest) attracting big and small shareholders w/ reduced risk---industrial banks, such as the Crédit Mobilier, became important in France and Germany in the 1850s---Credit Mobilier - founded by Jewish Isaac and Emile Pereire--mobilized the savings of thousands of small investors and invested them in transportation and industry--collaborated w/ gov'ts; established/developed many railroads and companies working in heavy industry
Decline in upward mobility by 2nd half 19th century
As factories grew larger, opportunities declined.-harder for the talented/poor to start enterprise-formal education became highly valued for success and more expensive-leading industrialists were most-likely inheritors-gap developed between industrial leaders and their workers Wives and daughters of successful businessmen - excluded from business activity/ expected to concentrate on feminine and domestic activities.
Critics of Ind. Revolution
Observers claimed that the Industrial Revolution brought misery to the workers.--Romantic poets Blake and Wordsworth protested the life of the workers and the pollution of the land and water--Luddites smashed the new machines they believed were putting them out of work--Economists Malthus and Ricardo concluded workers would only earn enough to stay alive--Doctors and reformers wrote on problems in factories and new towns-Engels wrote blistering attack on the middle classes, The Condition of the Working Class in England (1844)-statistics on purchasing power of the worker (real wages) show little or no improvement between 1780 and 1820.-----Between 1792 and 1815, living conditions actually declined as food prices rose faster than wages--Only after 1840 did a substantial improvement in real wages occur. Even in this era of improving purchasing power, hours of labor increased and unemployment was present:Diet probably improved, as did the supply of clothing, but housing did not
Condition of the Working Class in England - Engels
(1844)-Friedrich Engels (1820-1895); middle-class German wrote a blistering attack on the middle classes-new poverty of industrial workers was worse than the old poverty of cottage/agricultural laborers-industrial capitalism was at fault w/ relentless competition and constant technical change---influential accusation of middle-class exploitation and increasing worker poverty
Shifts in purchasing power for working class
purchasing power no change, 1780-1820--real wages rise substantially post 1820-more purchasing power allows more consumption, not necessarily more happiness
Conditions in early factories
factories resembled Eng. Poorhouses and were not considered a desirable place to work--factory discipline was harsh, work was monotonous child labor was condoned
Family and early factories and mines
-people worked in family units families did not mind child labor as long as children worked with them
employer and social reformer, pushed for humane working conditions--pressured Parliament to pass laws protecting children, etc.--organized unions
-idea that men should work in urban economy, women stay at home; women had biopsychosocial expectations to meet--women confined to "women's jobs" that were low-paying
New Rhythms of work
factory labor had strict tempo, often monotonous--before workers could work at their own leisurely pace
Women doing men's work and sexuality
jobs were segregated by gender to control young workers' sexuality--it was feared that boys and girls might form sexual relationships if they worked together--Mines Act of 1842 prohibited women from working underground; a response to the "debauchery" of shirtless women working in the British coal industry
Union movement: Combination Act -1799
--worker solidarity led to unionism--Combination Acts (1824) outlawed unions, but it was later repealed in 1824--Owen tried unsuccessfully to create a single large national union, but craft unions remained very effective
Chartists and Union movement
Hub Date: 1848: Chartists--Chartist movement sought political democracy through universal male suffrage--as an alternative to unions, workers could engage in political activity to promote their own interests
Testimony of Young Mining Workers
children worked constantly until they were tired out--often they didn't have an opportunity to learn
Describe urban city of 1850
walking the only means of transport high population density (overcrowding) often led to unsanitary living conditions--rural housing conditions in the city--government slow to establish municipal building codes and regulations
Book argues that filth in cities no worse than pre-industrial squalor of rural cottage
Housing was not viewed as a priority for city dwellers--not customary for people to engage in bathing
Social security system from in England from 16th to 20th century----Elizabethan Poor Law of 1601 - created a collectivist national system, offered relief to unemployed, provided materials for those seeking work, boarded out to orphaned and abandoned young children---18th century -- eighteenth-century workhouse movement began at the end of the seventeenth century with the establishment of the Bristol Corporation of the Poor, founded by Act of Parliament in 1696. The corporation established a workhouse which combined housing and care of the poor with a house of correction for petty offenders. The demands, needs and expectations of the poor also ensured that workhouses came to take on the character of general social policy institutions, combining the functions of creche, and night shelter, geriatric ward and orphanage. In 1782, Thomas Gilbert finally succeeded in passing an act that established poor houses solely for the aged and infirm and introduced a system of outdoor relief for the able-bodied. This was the basis for the development of the Speenhamland system, which made financial provision for low-paid workers.-----Reform of the Poor Law -- Dissatisfaction with the system grew at the beginning of the 19th century. The 1601 system was felt to be too costly and was widely perceived as encouraging the underlying problems - pushing more people into poverty even while it helped those who were already in poverty. Jeremy Bentham argued for a disciplinary, punitive approach to social problems, while Thomas Malthus focused on the problem of overpopulation, and the growth of illegitimacy. David Ricardo argued that there was an "iron law of wages". The effect of poor relief, in the view of the reformers, was to undermine the position of the "independent labourer". The 1817 Report of the Select Committee on the Poor Laws condemned the Poor Law as causing poverty itself. >>1834 Poor Law Amendment Act - established a Poor Law Commission to oversee the national operation of its system; included the forming together of small parishes into Poor Law Unions and the building of workhouses in each union for the giving of poor relief.
Utilitarianism- Jeremy Bentham
doctrine that moral worth of an action determined by its contribution to overall utility (good to be maximized)History: originates in the works of the Greek philosopher Epicurus, but as a specific school of thought, it was originally proposed by Jeremy Bentham. From the principle of utility, Bentham found pain and pleasure to be the only intrinsic values in the world: "nature has put man under the governance of two sovereign masters: pleasure and pain." From this he derived the rule of utility: that the good is whatever brings the greatest happiness to the greatest number of people. Later, after realizing that the formulation recognized two different conflicting principles, he dropped the second part and talked simply about "the greatest happiness principle."-Public problems must be dealt with on a rational, scientific basis.
Under Britain's revised Poor Law of 1834, Chadwick was assigned with the administration of relief to paupers. A Benthamite, Chadwick sought to reform the public health at the time.-Sanitary idea >> disease and death caused poverty - disease could be prevented by cleaning up the urban environment --Publication of his idea >> collected reports from local Poor Law officials on sanitary conditions, then published his findings in 1842 - his evidence proved that disease was related to filthy environmental conditions, caused by lack of drainage, sewers, and garbage collection---Solution >> excrement could be carried off by water through sweets at < 1/20 cost of removing by hand; pipes would provide running water and sewerage for all towns----In 1848, the Chadwick report became Great Britain's first public health law, with the creation of a national health board
Louis Pasteur - 1865
Germ theory/pasteurization >> based on his experimentation of the fermentation process, Pasteur found that specific diseases were caused by specific living organisms, germs, and these organisms could be controlled---Experiment >> he began studying fermentation in 1854, using his microscope to develop a simple test that brewers could use to monitor the fermentation test - found that fermentation depends on the growth of living organisms and the activity of these organisms could be suppressed by heating the beverage, or pasteurization
In the 1870s, Koch expanded the work of Pasteur of the connection between germs and disease >> he developed pure cultures of harmful bacteria and described their life cycles---Led to the identification of organisms responsible for diseases >> led to development of effective vaccines >> acceptance of germ theory
Joseph Lister - 1880s
As a result of Pasteur's discovery that the air was full of bacteria, Lister contributed to the improvements in the environment of the hospitals and surgery. >> found connection between aerial bacteria and wound infection--Antiseptic principle >> chemical disinfectant applied to the wound dressing would destroy the germs >> 1880s Germanns developed sophisticated practice of sterilization of instruments, hands, clothing, and wounds---
Decline in death rate
Achievements of bacterial revolution and the public health movement saved millions of lives, especially after 1880 >> morality rates declined drastically as diphtheria, typhoid, typhus, cholera, and yellow fever became vanishing diseases --Benefits >> city dwellers especially benefited--By 1910 the death rates for people of all ages in urban areas were generally no greater than those for people in rural areas.
Georges Haussman-Paris - wide boulevards radiate outward to train stations to elsewhere
French authoritarian planner Haussman transformed Paris by bulldozing buildings and opposition -Paris of 1850 >> narrow, dark streets; overcrowding; terrible slum conditions; extremely high death rates; few open spaces; lack of public transportation ---Reforms >> razed old buildings to cut broad, straight, tree-lined boulevards through the center of the city; demolition of worst slums; better housing for middle classes; small neighborhood parks and open spaces throughout the city; two large parks for all kinds of holiday activities - one on poor, one on wealthy side of the city; improvement of sewers; system of aqueducts greater 2x city supply of fresh water--Rebuilding provided new model for urban planning and stimulated modern urbanism
Other improvements of city: mass transit, housing, etc.
1870s cities authorized private companies to operate horse-drawn street cars, which had been developed in the U.S. to carry riders ---1890s Europe adopted the electric streetcar >> cheaper, faster, more dependable, more comfortable than horse-drawn >> service improved; millions of Europeans used this transportation; by 1910, electric streetcar systems in the four countries were carrying 6.7 billion riders--Good mass transit led to greater decent housing; new boulevards and streetcars facilitated middle class to move to better housing in 1860s and 1870s; after 1890 electric streetcars gave people of modest means access to new, improved housing >> less congestion because of expansion----
How was Marx wrong about social classes on late 19th c.?
Marx had predicted that society was split in two sharply defined opposing classes, but in the late 19th century, the gap between the rich and poor actually diversified and unified society as a result of industrial and urban development. As economic specialization created new social groups, there was a wide range of jobs, skills, and earnings. Thus, in this competitive and complex social hierarchy, there were so many subclasses that a single unified force was unlikely as there were enormous social variations.
Discuss different ranks among middle class and working class
Middle Class--Upper Middle Class - composed of most successful business families from banking, industry, and large scale commerce; drawn toward the aristocracy, which accepted the synthesis of a new elite of the upper middle class and aristocrats due to the provided business opportunities -- in fact, this new upper class consisted of 5% of the population--Middle Middle Class - solid but lacking wealth class, consisting of diversified industrialists, merchants, and professionals, engineers, architects, chemists, accountants, surveyors, government officials, public and private managers, private executives----Lower Middle Class - independent shopkeepers, small traders, tiny manufacturers, traveling salesman, bookkeepers, store managers, clerks >> white-collar employees = propertyless but firmly committed to the middle class; attempted to achieve professional standing and joint middle-class status, such as teachers, nurses, and dentists------------------Working class:-Labor aristocracy - highly skilled workers who made up 15% of the working classes; earned 2x that of unskilled workers; most aristocratic of workers = construction bosses and factory foremen; consisted of cabinetmakers, jewelers, and printers in handicraft trade; crafts in this elite often changed as factory methods were extended to certain crafts, so those skilled artisans were replaced by lower factory workers, while new crafts emerged such as shipbuilding; labor aristocracy strongly committed to family and to economic improvement; saw themselves as leaders of all working classes; practiced self-discipline and stern morality-Semiskilled - new semiskilled groups emerged between the extremes of highly skilled and unskilled, consisting of factory workers and machine tenders; workers in established crafts of carpentry, bricklaying, and pipe fitting were at the top of the semiskilled hierarchy; workers earned relatively good wages and importance in labor force increased-Unskilled - group of unskilled workers included day laborers such as longshoremen and wagon-driving teamsters, as well as domestic servants; unskilled workers had real skills and performed valuable services, but they were unorganized and divided, earning meager wages; domestic service was hard work at low pay with limited independence and risk of sexual exploitation; in the 19th century, domestic servants were becoming increasingly common - in fact, in Great Britain in 1911, 1/7 employed was a domestic servant
Construction bosses and factory foremen;--Also included members of traditional highly skilled handicraft trades that had not been mechanized in factories:---Cabinetmakers, jewelers, printers--15 % of the highly skilled working class; Earned about 2/3 of the income of the bottom ranks of the servant-keeping classes & twice as much as the income of the unskilled workers;---Existed workers were under constant pressure since factory methods were being extended to more crafts and many skilled artisans were being replace by lower-paid semiskilled factory workers:----Traditional woodcarvers and watchmakers disappeared as the making of furniture and timepieces now took place in the factory New members emerged--Shipbuilders and railway engineers--were characterized by puritanical behavior;--Were committed to the family and economic improvement therefore they saved money regularly and worried about their children's education;--Valued good housing
Middle class:-Loosely united by a certain style of life and culture-Food = the largest item in the household budget (25 % of their income)-Dinner party = favorite social occasion of the middle class families-Servants played a key role since a family was judged by how may servants it had;-Adored books, music and travel-Drunkenness and gambling were denounced;-Sexual purity was celebrated;-Working class:-Drinking = favorite leisure activity;-Visited sport events and music halls (racing and soccer were especially popular);--Gambling ;-Decline in church attendance (except U.S.)
The Decline in Church Attendance in 19th Century
The urban classes in Europe became more secular in the 19th century;--Construction of churches failed to keep up with the rapid growth of urban population and the growth of cities;--Catholic and Protestant churches were seen as conservative institutions:--As Europeans became more politically conscious, they tended to see the church as defending what they wanted to change--However, people still remained positive toward the religion itself.
Changes in Marriage
Beginning of 19th century:o Economic considerations in marriage were more important to the middle classes than to the working classes;o Middle class men married late after they ha been established economically:--Chose younger wives; A lot of tension in the families---A middle-class mother guarded her daughter's virginity like the family's credit;-late 19th century:o Marriage became less of an economic challenge;o Couples tended to marry if the girl was pregnant;o Urban couples became more stable
Premarital Sex in the Late 1800s (comparing to the earlier centuries):
Earlier ages:----- Illegitimacy explosion between 1750 and 1850;o As many as one birth in three was outside of marriage;o Many poor and propertyless people saw little wrong with having illegitimate kids Late 19th century;o More babies were born to married mothers: However, a lot of brides were pregnanto The growth of Puritanism and a lessening of sexual permissiveness;o Industrialization: Made cheap condoms and diaphragms available to poor people => less unwanted babies;o A pregnancy of a girl led to marriage (see changes in marriage: late 19th C above)
Prostitution was very widespread;o In Paris alone 155,000 women were registered as prostitutes and 750,000 were suspected of prostitution (1871-1903) My Secret Life¬:o By anonymous author;o Describes how easy it was to get a girl in the late 19th century;o Reveals the dark side of sex and class in urban society since a middle class man could pay the working class girl that has no money at all Sexual exploitation:o Young servant girls were often sexually exploitated by their masters For many women prostitution became a stage of their life, just like domestic service
Napoleonic Code and Women:
Napoleon Bonaparte of France, not Louis Napoleon Under this law women were dependents of either their fathers or their husbands; They could not make any contracts; Could not have bank accounts in their own names; Established a family monarchy where the power of husband and father was as absolute over the wife and the children as that of Napoleon was over his subjects.
Role of women in the home and education:
Women's influence at home increased in the 19th century; Although in theory it was the man who owned money, in practice it was the wife who determined how that money was spent: Husband gave all earning to his wife to manage;The wife returned her husband only a small allowance for carfare, beer, tobacco and union duties;The wife made all major domestic decisions;Inferiority in their education
More sexual freedom for women:
Affection and eroticism became more central to the couple :Love was the central theme in marriage--French marriage manual argued that women had legitimate sexual needs:The "right to orgasm"-Affection within the family suggests a more erotic, pleasurable intimate life for women in Western society:--Helped make the woman's role as mother and homemaker acceptable and satisfying
Decline in Death Rates
Babies became more important and women became better mothers in the late 19th century: Mothers were breastfeeding their infants rather than hiring wet nurses; Fewer illegitimate babies were abandoned (see changes in marriage: late 19th C above):: smaller chance of a baby to die----limit of the number of children:Went form 6 in the 1860s to 2 in the 1920s:Parents cared more about their children and devoted their attention to them
Dostoevsky and the children:
Novel The Brothers Karamazov (1880-1881):Four sons worked to destroy their father;At the murder trial one shouts: "Who doesn't wish his father dead?" Shows the hatred and tensions in relationships between a child and a father that characterized 19th century
Sigmund Freud as a symbol of his time in Vienna
Congress of Vienna:o Although was supposed to create stability, promoted insecurity;o Was one of the main causes for WWII Freud:o Similar to the Congress of Vienna because his psychology symbolized instability and unpredictability; Unconscious emotional needs of nature; Behavior motivated by an unconscious mind; Studied hysteria of his patients and their repressed feelings = various countries and their nationalistic feelings after the Congress of Vienna
this is one of Freud's ideas. Where he thinks that the child wants to kill his dad because he is competition for moms affection.
branch of science that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems. idea that energy can be transferred in heat or work. Important in chem, physics, and engineering.
electromagnetism. One of those thermodynamic scientists. Studied magnets and electricity. He is like the founder of electricity.
This guy was a positivist and social scientist. Look in the book. basically, 3 stages of life and thinking: physical, metaphysical and scientific.
Lamarck vs. Darwin.
Lamarck said acquired characteristics through lifetime.o ex- ostriches gained long legs to run fast. acquired over time as need for speed= long legs. Darwin disagreed. He said through natural selection and random changes.
this guy was a realist writer. realism=observing everyday life. realistic stories. He supported Dreyfus.
this is when a jewish officier was convicted for treason for selling French info to the Germans. Showed anti Semitism. The J'accuse is Zola's book that supported Dreyfus. Dreyfus was shipped to an island prison in South America.
Literature of 19th cent.- realism.
A lot of guys, Zola, Balzac, Flaubert in France where realism was strong. In England, George Elliot, Thomas Hardy. The other writer is a Russian guy named Leo Tolstoy who wrote War and Peace.
Louis Napolean 3's theories of rule -
Gov should represent people and help economically=strong authoritarian leader that helps all citizens. Vision of national unity.
Napoleon 3's reforms-
economic progress. reduced social and political tensions by helping urban workers and allowing people to vote for parliament members.
French constitution of 1869-70
Progressive liberalization of the government by Napoleon III during the 1860s Assembly - more powers; opposition - more freedomo 1869 - opposition of Napoleon (republicans, monarchists, liberals) - polled almost 45 percent of the votes What is it?o Napoleon (sick, weary) - grants new constitution Combines parliamentary regime with hereditary emperor as chief of state Voted in by a plebiscite (7.5 million against 1.5 million) Impacto Impact destroyed by outcome of Franco-Prussian war Napoleon himself - captured by the Germans Paris proclaims a republic (the Third Republic) - surrenders to Germans after months of siege (impact of this - Paris Commune)
Paris Commune of 1871
Franco-Prussian War Bismarck engineered event to bring the German nation together (for more information, see no. 173)o Proclamation of the Third Republic Napoleon himself - captured at Sedan, September 1 Paris proclaims the Third Republic - vows to continue fighting After 5 months of eating rats, government submits to the Germans - traumatized Parisians revolt What is it?o After the Third Republic surrenders, Paris created the Paris Commune (Reminiscent of the 1789 revolution)o Praised by Marx himselfo Vaguely radical leaders - want to govern Paris without interference from the countryside (in reaction to the conservative majority of the national elections) National Assembly, headed by Adolphe Thiers, ordered French army to crush the Commune 20,000 people died in the fighting Impacto France - forms new national unity o The destruction of the Commune Showed fearful provinces and middle class that government could be headed in moderate and socially conservative direction - France maintained republic (as said by Thiers "the government which divides us the least")
Jules Ferry - with Bismarck at Berlin Conference
Unruly imperialism (people were taking whatever they wanted, everywhere) What is it?o Jules Ferry and Bismarck made a conference to lay down some basic rules for imperialism (to avert any wars) Principle that claims on African territory had to rest on "effective occupation" in order to be recognized Europeans - push inward from the water (for Africa) so that not one country would have hegemony over the continent o Bismarck - before - disdained colonies Both him and Ferry were pro-imperialism afterwards (probably to prove their nation's worth)
Shift in French education from Catholic to secular
Previously Most elementary schools - narrow-minded catholic church (hostile to republic and to secular life) What is it?o Between 1879 and 1886, Jules Ferry passed a number of laws establishing free compulsory education for both girls and boyso Used young male and female teachers who carried the ideology of patriotic republicanismo In particular wed women To provide contrast with nuns, to cope with loneliness, and to encourage babies Impacto Expanded the state system of public tax-supported schoolso Made more children go to secular school than religious schoolso Created a system almost of indoctrination into the ideals of the republico Was a huge nation-building tool that helped strengthen the country
In book: p842, column 2 Previous Happeningso School reforms in Franceo General anti-Semitic feeling among the Catholics at the time What is it?o Dreyfus, a Jewish captain in the French army was falsely accused of selling secrets to the German military He was convicted in 1894 - family fought to re-open the case Case re-opened in 1899, where he was found re-guilty, and sentenced for ten years, but the French President Loubet pardoned him The "secrets" that were found in the waste-basket of a German General were in fact false information provided by a French spy to try to trick the Germans (for more information, see wikipedia) Impacto Created tensions between the French On one side the army, the majority of the Catholics, and the anti-Semites (against Dreyfus); the other side was the republicans and the civil libertarians (and Emile Zola).o Revived republican feeling against the Church Between 1901 and 1905 - government severed all ties with Catholic Churcho Stopped confrontation between the French and the British at Fashoda, in Africa
In book p828 Previous happeningso Mazzini - tried to unify Italy in 1848 - smashed by Austriao Some called for a federation under presidency of Pope - failed, because the pope was alienated by what happened in 1848 Who is he?o Cavour - leader in Sardinian politics between 1850 and 1861o He worked to consolidate Sardinia as a liberal constitutional state capable of leading northern Italy Allied himself with Napoleon III to fight with Austria over Venetia and Lombardy Napoleon made an about face, so Cavour only got Lombardy in the endo Nationalists and unifier worked to help Cavour He submitted Savoy and Nice to France to get goodwill of Napoleono Garibaldi came along and managed to get Southern Italy and Sicily to unify with Italy Cavour controlled Garibaldi enough so that G. would not try to take the Papal States by war.
Who is he?o A super patriot who had a plan to "liberate" the kingdom of the Two Sicilies Led the Red Shirts through Sicily, and took Palermo, then rampaged through Southern Italy Cavour, to stop him from getting to the Papal states, invaded the Papal states himself (though not Rome) and intercepted Garibaldi (to not lose goodwill of Napoleon) Had a huge amount of popular appeal, but did not try to fight Cavour
Victor Emmanuel w/o Venice until 1866 or Rome until 1870
How was it?o Parliamentary monarchy under Victor Emmanuel Neither radical nor democratic (only a small minority of Italian males had right to vote)o Propertied classes and the common people - dividedo A great and growing social and cultural gap separated the progressive industrializing north from the stagnant agrarian south Although Italy was officially unified, it was actually still profoundly divided What else can I put?o Let it suffice it to say that Italy got Venice after the Austro-Prussian War (1866)o Rome was integrated into the kingdom in 1870 France was protecting Rome, but with the war against Prussia, the French Garrison was called back to Franceo As there was no one protecting the city, the Italians invaded
Blood and Iron
Originso Otto Von Bismarck said that revolutions are not created by speeches, but by blood and irono William I called upon him to unify Germanyo Start of this - 1862 Bismarck started collecting taxes without Parliament's consent to bolster army's power After war with Austrians against the Danish, he made an about face, and defeated the Austrians in 1866, to expel them from German affairs Bismarck tamed the parliament Fought with France, cementing the German unification Impacto Bismarck, by doing everything with "iron" created much resentment that simmered until WWIo He did not really cooperate with the liberals at all, showing the progression f Germany into a monarchy (later led by William II, who did a very bad job, and also played a key role in WWI)
Politics based strictly on practical purposes, rather than ideological notions It is used pejoratively to describe amoral politics aimed to achieve a goal by any means (reminiscent of Machiavelli) Used by Bismarck, German chancellor to keep public from being unhappy and breaking out in revolt Bismarck didn't have a predetermined plan for bringing about the unification of Germany; rather, he effectively took advantage of opportunities presented to him To deal w/ the political crisis in Prussia, Bismarck turned the tables on the Liberals in Reichstag, claiming that they possessed no constitutional power to block needed reforms
Indemnity Act against Parliament
Hub Date 1870 Reichstag hailed Bismarck's achievement by retroactively approving the illegally collected taxes with the Indemnity Bill of 1866.
Hub Dates: 1848, 1870 1848 Provinces inhabited mostly by Germans, ruled by Danish king, Frederick VIIo Frederick VII tried to integrate both provinces into the rest of his stateo Germans in Schleswig-Holstein revoltedo Prussian army opposed Denmark in the name of the German nationo Denmark defeated 1864 Danish king tried once again to bring the provinces into a more centralized Danish state Against will of German Confederation Prussia joined Austria in a short and successful war against Denmark
Franco-Prussian War of 1870
Hub Date: 1870 Bismarck realized that a war with France would drive the south German states into his arms Southern German states supported Bismarck after outbreak of war Paris surrendered and southern German states joined a new German empire King of Prussia and his ministers had ultimate power in the new German Empire, and the lower house of the legislature was elected by universal male suffrage Bismarck and the German Empire imposed a harsh peace on France German and France affairs and relations were tragically weakened War released an enormous surge of patriotic feeling in Germany Prussia had become the most powerful state in Europe in less than a decade
National Liberal Party
Hub Date: 1870 Flourished btw 1867 and 1918 M-c, Supported legislation useful for further econ. and legal unification of Germany Period of great dominance btw 1871 and 1879, when they were Bismarck's chief allies in the Reichstag. They were avid supporters of the Kulturkampf Bismarck broke with the Liberals in 1879 when he turned to protection, which violated the free trade principles of the National Liberals
1871-1878 attack by German chancellor Bismarck on the Catholic church--Bismarck was alarmed by Pope Pius IX's declaration of papal infallibility in 1870 German Catholics began to place loyalty to the church above the nation--Achieved only limited success in Protestant Russia
Catholic theology stating that the Pope is incapable of error in his dogmatic teachings on faith or morals as being contained by divine revelation-Defined dogmatically by the First Vatican Council of 1870
Bismarck wins support of Catholic Center Party
Bismarck and Catholic Center Party, after Bismarck abandoned the Kulturkampf, formed an alliance in 1878
1873 there was a worldwide financial crash--Since German peasantry largely Catholic, the Catholic Center Party converted to high tariffs to protect the econ. interests of its supporters--The same competitive pressures caused the Protestant Junkers to embrace the cause of higher tariffs-Bismarck in 1879 passed a new protective tariff, winning supporters in the Reichstag
Outlawing Social Democratic Party
Social Democratic Party: Marxist in theory, moderate socialist party which sought to obtain benefits for the working class-Socialism: Bismarck genuinely feared the revolutionary language and allegiance to a movement transcending the nation-state
Bismarck's social reforms:
raise taxes to protect the economy (not social)--gained support of Catholic center party, Nationalist Party in Reichstag created social security benefits (pensions retirement benefits insurance help for workers)
William II and Social-Democratic Party (SDP)
William II (r. 1888-1914) became the new emperor in 1890 was young, idealistic and unstable, opposed Bismarck's attempt to renew the law outlawing the SDP,eager to rule in own right and earn support of workers,forced Bismarck to resign ----German SDP:socialist political activity legalized,,new laws to aid workers,Socialist ideas spread quickly among W-C,Socialists gain more seats in Reichstag (oppose greater military spending)
John Stuart Mill
Stuart Mill (English philosopher)Basis of Philosophy :Benthamite tradition of Bentham, Chadwick Public problems should be dealt w/ on a rational, scientific basis (sci. rev) 2)According to the "greatest good for greatest number"
1867 Reform Bill
extends vote to all M-C males and the best-paid workers--risky move helps increase power base of Conservative party--more and more the gov't trusted people of "lower orders" to make informed, good decisions in government
1884 Reform Bill (3rd Reform Bill)
Liberal prime minister William Gladstone--Vote to almost every adult male--Only homeless and domestic servants unable to vote--Democratic system looks more and more like American one--
1911 Reform Bill
Passed by Benjamin Disraeli, this bill also helped to broaden the support base of the Conservative
Irish home rule- Liberals vs. Conservatives
Home Rule:self-government for Ireland away from England--Gladstone- 2 failed bills to free Ireland in 1886 and 1893 (liberal party)--Home-rule stalled with start of WWI
Norwegian independence 1905
Sweden powerless to stop growth of Norwegian national movement--Movement ends in Norway's breaking away and becoming a fully independent nation away from Sweden in 1905
Austrian education and language issue
Emp. Francis Joseph and his bureaucracy try to centralize state and Germanize the language and culture of the different nationalities
1890 Lueger and "Christian Socialists" win huge electoral victories-Popular mayor of Vienna from 1897-1910
A series of socialist gathering in 1864 organized by Marx because he wanted to spread his thoughts. (He wanted to convince everyone that a proletarian revolution was inevitable.) First International wasn't successful because the revolutionary thought frightened many people, especially the moderate British labor leaders
May Day by 2nd International
An annual, international one-day strike for workers. (Marches and demonstrations)
Growth of union movement
During the late 1700s, unions were prohibited, but as the workers standard of ,living and wages improved, unions were allowed to exist. Workers were also not as radical anymore because they could focus more time on their rights and voting. .
Revisionism/ evolutionary socialism
Marxian doctrines should be updated to reflect on the changing society. --German Social Democratic Party and the Second International opposed revisionism. (They just wanted the true socialist thoughts without revisions).--German socialists, particularly in the trade unions, favored revisionism.
A socialist who believed in Revisionism.--Wrote Evolutionary Socialism in 1899 to prove Marx wrong about wealth concentration in a minority and worker poverty. --He thought other socialists should reform their doctrines and combine with other progressive forces to improve the life of workers.
Fabians of England
The middle-class of Great Britain who were involved with politics and practical gains. (Imperialism)--The Webb family was the center of the Fabians.--Believed in Ricardian theory and thought that it was state's responsibility to acquire rent.--They thought that a few people should lead everybody else to reform government. --The Fabians of England disappeared in the 1930s
Alex I, Nick I, Alex II, Alex III, Nicholas II
All were tsars of Russia during the 19th century.-Alexander I (1803-1825):Tsar during the Napoleonic Wars, in which he defeated France.-A member of the Holy Alliance (conservative) in the Congress of Vienna.-Balance of power. (He still had some controversies with Prussia concerning Poland and Saxony). - fair Nicholas I (1825-1855):Tsar during the Decembrist Revolution. (Enlightened others in Russia)--Put down the radicals in The Austrian Empire during 1848 Revolution.
Crimean War of 1853-1856
Russia wanted land around the Black Sea and to protect the Christian Shrines,but lost this war to France, Britain, Sardinia, and the Ottoman Empire
Assassination of Alex II
- the era of reform came to an abrupt end, anti Jewish development come toplay
- tough, competent minister of finance for Alexander III, inspired by Lister, economic liberlaism. anti communistic
Russian Reinsurance Treaty
- When Russia declined to renew the Alliance of the Three Emperors (see below) due to tensions in the Balkans, Bismark substituted this treaty
Three Emperors League-
Part of Bismarck's plan to restrain both Russia and Austria-Hungary and to prevent conflict between them- Intended to stand in opposition to increasingly liberal governments in the Westo Linked the monarchs of AH, G, and R in an alliance against radical movementso However, it fell apart after Congress of Berlin (1878) Congress of Berlin infuriated Russia because Bismarck was trying to make peace after Russia's victories in a war with the Ottoman Empire- Led to Triple Allianceo Bismarck concluded a defensive military alliance with Austria against Russia in 1879, and Italy joined because of tensions with France
Franco-Russian Agreement of 1890
- Fateful moveo William II's adamant refusal to renew RG Reinsurance Treaty prompted long isolated republican France to court absolutist Russia offering loans arms and friendshipo Public demonstrations In 1891, France and Russia had enthusiastic public demonstrations• In St. Petersburg harbor, Alexander III stood bareheaded to a playing of the hymn of French revolution- Significanceo Alliance was to remain in effect as long as the Triple alliance of Austria, Germany, and Italy existedo Resulted in the division of Europe into rival blocks
Bloody Sunday 1905
- On a Sunday in January, a massive crowd of workers and their families converged peacefully at the Winter Palace in St. Petersburgo Led by Gapon and sang "God Save the Tsar"o Didn't know Nicholas II had fled the cityo Troops open fired, killing and wounding hundredso moderate estimates average around 1,000 killed or wounded, both from shots and trampled during the panic Effects:- The massacre turned ordinary workers against the tsar and produced a wave of general indignationo Outlawed political parties came out into the openo Strikes, peasant uprisings, revolts among minority nationalities, and troop mutinies were sweeping the countryo "great paralyzing general strike" causing the government to capitulate
October Manifesto (1905)
- Government capitulated, granting full civil rights and promising a popularly elected Duma (see below) with real legislative power- Effects:o Split the oppositiono Frightened middle class leaders helped the gov repress uprising and survive as a constitutional monarchyo Therefore it was effective in stopping the revolt, but the government did not really fulfill its promises (see terms below)
- Parliament with real legislative powers in Russia- First one in 1906 elected by universal male suffrage and could debate with a largely appointive upper house to pass lawso Tsar held veto, so it didn't have that much powero Emperor appointed ministers, who didn't need to command a majority in the Duma- Problemso Middle-class liberals, the largest group in the Duma, saw Fundamental Laws as step backwardo Didn't cooperate, so Tsar dismissed Duma and then dismissed the new Dumao Landowners became assured half the seats in the Duma
Fundamental Laws (May 1906)
- Government issued this new constitution, giving the tsar great powers- Tsar held veto, emperor appointed his ministers who didn't need to command a majority in the Duma- It declared in part the autocracy of the Russian Emperor, including Emperor's supremacy over the Law, the Church, and Duma- It defined the scope and supremacy of the law over Russian subjects.- confirmed the basic human rights granted by the October Manifesto, but made them subordinate to the supremacy of the law
"Wager on the Strong"
- Peter Stolypin, the tough, energetic chief minister pushed through important agrarian reforms designed to break down collective village ownership of land and encourage more enterprising peasants- Aimed to create a more moderately wealthy class of peasants who would support society- Led to partially modernized Russia by 1914- Russia = conservative constitutional monarchy with a peasant-based but industrializing economy