recognizing that this period was an era of transition between ancient and modern times, Western Europe was backwards or in "Dark Ages"
(Middle Ages) a person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord
the Frankish commander for the battle of Tours. He defeated the Muslims in the Battle of Tours, allowing Christianity to survive throughout the Dark Ages. He in a way started Feudalism by giving land to his knights that served for him.
a piece of land held under the feudal system
Code of conduct for knights during the Middle Ages
Alfred the Great
stopped Vikings and unified Anglo-Saxon kingdom to put up a united front against the Vikings; only English king with the title "Great"
king of the Franks and Holy Roman Emperor, Frankish king who conquered most of Europe and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III in the year 800
honor; tribute; great respect; Ex. pay/do homage to
a political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service
Set of rules that govern monk's lives
king of the Franks who unified Gaul and established his capital at Paris and founded the Frankish monarchy. Ex. his name was rendered as Gallic 'Louis' (466-511) Frankish ruler (481 AD) became known as one of the most orthodox Christian rulers in the West in 5th century; had alliance with Pope User-contributed converts to Catholicism and makes France entirely Frankish
church court set up to stamp out heresy
a belief that rejects the orthodox tenets of a religion
Pepin the Short
He was Charles Martel's son. He was king and the Pope asked him for help against the Lombards who were invading. Pepin helps him and defeats them and in turn, the Pope names him king of the Franks. Then Pepin gives the Pope land called the Papal States.
Pope Gregory I
590-604 was most important figure for providing Roman church with sense of direction; "Gregory the Great"; mobilized local resources and organized defense of Rome
Founded by Francis of Assisi, followed the simple life of Jesus and his disciples, cheerful trust in God and their respect in nature as the divine right
Pope Innocent III
pope from 1198 to 1216 and led the papacy to its height in power...he was a skilled diplomat and a great political leader...he believed that emperors and kings were servant of the church.. he dominated almost all of Europe
lesser lords who pledged their service and loyalty to a greater lord -- in a military capacity
one of a seafaring Scandinavian people who raided the coasts of northern and western from the eighth through the tenth century.
Germanic people who lived and held power in Gaul. Their leader was Clovis and he would later bring Christianity to the region. By 511 the Franks had united into one kingdom and they controlled the largest and strongest parts of Europe.
King of Norse gods
(Norse mythology) god of thunder and rain and farming
one of the main longitudinal beams (or plates) of the hull of a vessel
(Norse mythology) the hall in which Odin received the souls of slain heroes
Important religious ceremonies that helped one reach salvation
the act of banishing a member of the Church from the communion of believers and the privileges of the Church
groups of people who inflicted physical harm on themselves as penance for society's sins, believing that the plague was God's punishment