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1. According to psychoanalytic therapy, human beings are: (p.455)

b. determined by psychic energy and early experiences.

2. Which of the following approaches contends that the nature of the human condition includes self-awareness, freedom of choice, responsibility, and anxiety as basic elements? (p.455)

c. existential therapy

3. Which of the following approaches to therapy focuses on the unique style of life we create at an early age? (p. 455)

e. Adlerian therapy

4. Which of the following approaches is based on the premise that there are multiple realities and multiple truths? (p. 456)

b. postmodern approaches

5. Which of the following orientations avoids exploring problems, and instead, focuses on creating solutions in the present and the future? (p. 456)

d. solution-focused therapy

6. Which statement most closely reflects the philosophy of feminist therapy? (p. 456)

c. Constructs of feminist therapy include being gender-fair, flexible, interactionist, and lifespan oriented.

7. Adlerian therapy emphasizes the individual ' s: (p. 457)

a. positive capacities to live in society cooperatively.

8. Which of the following approaches would contend that normal personality development depends on the successful resolution of specific stages of development? (p. 457)

c. psychoanalytic therapy

9. A key concept of Gestalt therapy is: (p.457)

b. unfinished business.

10. Which of the following therapies emphasizes that a person's belief system is the cause of emotional problems? (p. 457)

e. rational emotive behavior therapy ·

11. Person-centered therapy puts faith in the client's: (p.457)

d. capacity for self-direction.

12. Which of the following approaches most emphasizes principles of learning? (p. 457)

b. behavior therapy

13. Which is not a key concept of feminist therapy? (p. 458)

d. women's problems are viewed from an intrapsychic perspective

14. Personal change and social transformation are goals of: (p.460)

d. feminist therapy.

15. Which of the following approaches to therapy most attempts to provide a growth-promoting climate that is conducive to a client's self-exploration? (p.460)

e. person-centered therapy

16. One of the goals of rational emotiv:e behavior therapy is to: (p.460)

a. assist clients in acquiring a more tolerant and rational view of life.

17. Which of the following approaches places emphasis on challenging clients to recognize that they are responsible for events that they formerly thought were happening to them? (p. 460)

b. existential therapy

18. One of the major goals of reality therapy involves: (p. 460)

d. challenging clients to evaluate what they are doing.

19. Which of the following approaches to therapy focuses on the scientific method? (p. 460)

c. behavior therapy

20. Empowerment and egalitarianism are the basis of the ____ therapeutic relationship.

b. feminist

21. According to traditional psychoanalytic therapy, the therapist: (p.464)

c. remains anonymous.

22. In which of the following approaches does the therapist show concern for the client by a process of involvement throughout the course of therapy? (p. 465)

a. reality therapy

23. In which therapy approach is the client viewed as the expert on his or her own life, while the therapist is seen as an expert questioner who assists clients in freeing themselves of their problem-saturated stories and create new life-affirming stories? (p.465)

b. narrative therapy

30. Which of the following approaches to therapy stresses the attitude of the therapist over the use of techniques? (p. 466)

a. person-centered therapy

31. The technique of reliving and reexperiencing unfinished business is associated with: (p.466)

a. Gestalt therapy.

32. In feminist therapy, the following technique(s) is/are used to help clients recognize the impact of gender-role socialization: (p.467)

d. consciousness-raising

33. In psychoanalytic therapy, a technique of great importance is: (p.466)

d. interpretation.

34. Narrative therapy can be applied to: (p. 469)

d. all of the above

35. Which of the following therapies is most recommended for the treatment of phobic disorders?

a. behavior therapy

24. Which of the following approaches encourages therapists to accurately grasp the client's being in the world,? (p.464)

e. existential therapy

25. An Adlerian therapist would: (p.464)

b. establish a cooperative relationship based on equality.

26. In which of the following approaches to therapy does the therapist become active and directive, functioning as a trainer for the client? (p.464)

c. behavior therapy

27. A key technique of Adlerian therapy is: (p.466)

e. the assessment of one's family constellation.

28. Which of the following approaches to therapy stresses authenticity first and technique second? (p. 466)

b. existential therapy

29. One ofthe techniques used by behavior therapists in dealing with a client's anxiety is:

d. systematic desensitization.

36. Which of the following approaches to therapy is based on the A-B-C theory of personality?

b. rational emotive behavior therapy

37. Which of the following approaches is least likely to be applied to short-term crisis intervention? (p.468)

d. psychoanalytic therapy

38. Existential therapy can be especially helpful for: (p. 468)

e. individuals facing a transition in life.

39. Which of the following approaches to therapy is best suited for helping people to create an alternative life story? (p. 469)

a. narrative therapy

40. One contribution of psychoanalytic therapy has been its: (p.473)

c. detailed and comprehensive description of personality structure and functioning.

41. Which of the following approaches is credited with an emphasis on assessment and evaluation? (p.473)

a. behavior therapy

42. Which of the following approaches challenges social and cultural injustices that lead to oppression of certain groups? (p.471)

d. narrative therapy

43. Which of the following approaches consists of simple and clear concepts and emphasizes the role of choice? (p. 474)

b. reality therapy

44. One contribution of Adlerian therapy has been an emphasis on: (p. 473)

e. social and psychological factors.

45. Which of the following approaches to therapy is noted for using numerous cognitive, emotive, and behavioral techniques? (p.474)

c. rational emotive behavior therapy

46. The negative impact of discrimination and oppression for both men and women has surfaced as a result of: (p.474)

d. feminist therapy.

47. Some are critical of the "not-knowing" stance of the therapist and the negative stance on formal diagnosis in which of these therapies? (p. 476)

solution-focused therapy & narrative therapy

48. A limitation of reality therapy is that it: (p. 475)

b. discounts the therapeutic value of dreams.

49. A limitation of person-centered therapy is: (p.475)

a. the possible danger of the therapist remaining passive and inactive.

50. A limitation of existential therapy is its: (p.475)

c. limited applicability to nonverbal clients.

51. A limitation of Gestalt therapy is that it: (p.475)

e. may neglect cognitive factors.

52. A limitation of behavior therapy is that it: (p.475)

e. none of the above

53. Historically, counselors have been: (p.448)

d. all of the above

54. A major difference between an eclectic and an integrated approach to counseling is: (p. 448)

b. eclectic approaches are susceptible to syncretism, while integrated approaches combine techniques based on theoretical reasons.

55. Which of the following approaches to integration refers to a conceptual creation beyond a mere blending of techniques? (p. 450)

c. theoretical integration

56. Technical eclecticism: (p. 450)

d. all of the above

57. The common factors approach to psychotherapy integration: (p. 450)

a. searches for shared elements across different theoretical systems.

58. In deciding which interventions will be most helpful for the client, the counselor practicing integratively must: (p. 462)

e. all of the above

59. Regarding psychotherapy outcome, research shows: (p.477)

d. no model of therapy has been proven more effective than another.

60. What is the current thinking in the field regarding the role of spirituality in counseling?

a. There is growing evidence that spiritual practice promotes psychological well-being.

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