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1. Which of the following is not a theory about the reasons Paleolithic people created cave art?
a. Magic charms meant to ensure a successful hunt
b. Lunar calendars for predicting seasonal migration of the animals
c. Conjuring game by depicting it
d. Offerings to the dead found buried in the caves

d. Offerings to the dead found buried in the caves

How has Chauvet Cave changed thinking about prehistoric art?
a. Art progressed from awkward beginnings to more sophisticated representations
b. Paleolithic cave art probably was created by a single person
c. Art did not necessarily evolve in a linear progression from primitive to realistic
d. Paleolithic cave handprints were a form of graffiti created by young people

c. Art did not necessarily evolve in a linear progression from primitive to realistic

Why do Paleolithic female figurines vastly outnumber male representations?
a. Males likely were the carvers
b. Males probably outnumbered females
c. Females likely played a central role in the culture
d. Females were more physically attractive than males

c. Females likely played a central role in the culture

Why was agriculture such an enormous development?
a. It enabled the people to abandon a carnivorous diet
b. It created a warmer climate because of gases released by the plants
c. It encouraged written language so that records could be kept
d. It encouraged distinct centers of people with a common pursuit

d. It encouraged distinct centers of people with a common pursuit

According to the most recent discoveries, why was Stonehenge constructed?
a. A place for sacrifice
b. A king's residence
c. A burial ground
d. A Druid gathering place

c. A burial ground

What is a shaman?
a. The leader of a tribe
b. A person's essence or soul
c. A teller of myths
d. A person with mystical powers

d. A person with mystical powers

Why did an Anasazi kiva have a small, round hole in its floor?
a. The Anasazi believed that their ancestors emerged from the depths of the Earth
b. The Anasazi used the hole to collect what little rain fell in the parched desert
c. The Anasazi believed evil spirits could be flushed into the depths of the Earth
d. The Anasazi developed a complex human-waste-disposal system

a. The Anasazi believed that their ancestors emerged from the depths of the Earth

Why are Ise's shrine buildings razed and then rebuilt every twenty years?
a. Aged wood becomes fragile
b. To celebrate ritual renewal
c. Generational cycles are twenty years
d. To symbolize Amaterasu's lifespan

b. To celebrate ritual renewal

Who are the Olmec's colossal stone heads believed to represent?
a. Their gods
b. Their enemies
c. Their rulers
d. Their allies

c. Their rulers

What do the Hopewell tribe's elaborate burials tell about them?
a. They considered bear teeth to be sacred
b. They created beautiful works of pottery
c. They believed the dead would be reincarnated
d. They had an extensive trade network

d. They had an extensive trade network

What new technology followed agriculture in defining Mesopotamia?
a. Temple construction
b. Metallurgy
c. Water mills
d. Ship building

b. Metallurgy

Why did visitors to the ziggurats often leave a statue representing themselves?
a. To gain admittance to the temple on the top
b. To serve as prayer offerings to the gods
c. To assure themselves of a good afterlife
d. To help the gods recognize and protect them

b. To serve as prayer offerings to the gods

Which of the following pairs correctly identifies the subjects illustrated on the Royal Standard
of Ur?
a. "Winter" and "Summer"
b. "Heaven" and "Earth"
c. "Planting" and "Harvest"
d. "War" and "Peace"

d. "War" and "Peace"

What did lost-wax casting enable the Mesopotamian sculptors to create?
a. More lifelike-looking bronze pieces
b. Many copies of their bronze works
c. Larger and more lightweight bronze pieces
d. Stronger and more durable bronze pieces

c. Larger and more lightweight bronze pieces

Why does Hammurabi's law code represent an important change for Mesopotamian justice?
a. It gave the ruler more authority and power
b. It provided slaves protection from abusive owners
c. It established rules for appointing judges
d. It made laws more uniform, objective, and impartial

d. It made laws more uniform, objective, and impartial

What classic struggle do Gilgamesh and Enkidu represent?
a. Nature versus civilization
b. Good versus evil
c. Person versus societyd. Upper class versus lower class

a. Nature versus civilization

Why is the Epic of Gilgamesh a first in known literary works?
a. It is the first to confront the idea of death
b. It is the first to show humans challenging gods
c. It is the first to celebrate human friendship
d. It is the first to present gods as anthropomorphic

a. It is the first to confront the idea of death

Why do the Ten Commandments provide equal treatment for all classes of the Hebrews?
a. The Hebrews did not tolerate class distinctions
b. The Hebrews wished to attract converts
c. The Hebrews had once themselves been slaves
d. The Hebrews did not practice any form of slavery

c. The Hebrews had once themselves been slaves

What was the role of the Hebrew prophets in the era following Solomon's death?
a. To provide moral instruction according to the laws of the Torah
b. To foretell the future for the Hebrew people
c. To reunite the two separate states of the United Monarchy of Israel
d. To function as intermediaries between Yahweh and the Hebrews

a. To provide moral instruction according to the laws of the Torah

What is the Persian Zoroaster's greatest contribution to religious thought?
a. The concept of a heaven and a hell
b. The notion of a dualistic universe
c. The emphasis on free will
d. The belief in an enduring soul

c. The emphasis on free will

What was left behind by the Nile's annual flooding?
a. Fish-filled lakes and ponds
b. Deep deposits of fertile soil
c. Swarms of frogs and locusts
d. Widespread destruction

b. Deep deposits of fertile soil

Why did the Egyptians believe that a good deity like Osiris required a bad deity like Seth?
a. Without knowing bad, one had no basis for knowing good
b. Opposites were necessary for balance, harmony, and cycles
c. Good versus evil provides the most basic and intense conflict
d. Seth had to murder Osiris so Osiris could be god of the dead

b. Opposites were necessary for balance, harmony, and cycles

How are the figures on the Palette of Narmer similar to those on the Mesopotamian Royal
Standard of Ur?
a. The king is shown as larger than anyone else
b. The king is portrayed as having lighter skin
c. The king is positioned in the center of each scene
d. The king is standing beside a god

a. The king is shown as larger than anyone else

Why did the Egyptians go to such lengths to preserve the dead?
a. They believed that the deceased eventually would be resurrected
b. They believed that only intact bodies could enter the underworld
c. They believed the deceased should imitate Osiris, the prototype mummy
d. The believed the deceased's ka and ba would not recognize a decomposed body

d. The believed the deceased's ka and ba would not recognize a decomposed body

Why was deciphering the Rosetta Stone so significant?
a. The Stone revealed locations of the royal tombs
b. The Stone provided the key to reading hieroglyphs
c. The Stone listed names and dates of the Egyptian rulers
d. The Stone confirmed the existence of Cleopatra

b. The Stone provided the key to reading hieroglyphs

. The Egyptian word for sculpture is the same as the word for what other act?
a. Writing
b. Painting
c. Giving birth
d. Preserving

c. Giving birth

What is one of the greatest changes that took place during the Middle Kingdom?
a. Mummification procedures became more complex and ritualized
b. Architects used mathematics and astronomy for pyramid construction
c. Writing and literature moved from the sacred to the imaginative
d. Upper and Lower Egypt split and remained separate kingdoms

c. Writing and literature moved from the sacred to the imaginative

Why would Akhenaten's change in the religion create change in the visual arts?
a. Akhenaten declared artists to be dissidents, so they sought revenge through art
b. Artists strove to produce works of Aten only so as to please Akhenaten
c. The gods were no longer seen as perfect, so art's subjects also could be imperfect
d. Akhenaten declared art to be created only by priests

c. The gods were no longer seen as perfect, so art's subjects also could be imperfect
d. Akhenaten declared art to be creat

Why were Egyptians buried with Books of Going Forth by Day (Books of the Dead)?
a. To enable their ka to recognize their ba
b. To help them survive the ritual of judgment
c. To provide instructions for resurrection
d. To show Osiris proof of their goodness

b. To help them survive the ritual of judgment

Why during the 8th century BCE were the Kushites able to control Egypt?
a. The Egyptians needed stronger leadership to thwart an Assyrian invasion
b. The Egyptian pharaohs had become weakened due to inbreeding
c. The Kushites invaded Egypt, killed the pharaoh, and seized control
d. The Kushites controlled most of Egypt's debt from building programs

a. The Egyptians needed stronger leadership to thwart an Assyrian invasion

Why are the more than 100 Aegean islands between mainland Greece and Crete known as the
Cyclades?
a. This area of the Aegean is prone to cyclones
b. They form the arc of the trade route cycle
c. The Greeks believed them home to the Cyclops
d. The islands form a rough circular shape

d. The islands form a rough circular shape

. Why was the Minoan civilization on Crete able to flourish?
a. Crete is the largest of the Aegean islands
b. Crete abounds with natural resources such as gold
c. Crete's position lay on diverse trade routes
d. Crete's strong military kept invaders at bay

c. Crete's position lay on diverse trade routes

How do Minoan frescoes differ from Egyptian frescoes?
a. Minoan frescoes were painted by professional artists, not slaves
b. Minoan frescoes appear on walls of homes and palaces, not tombs
c. Minoan frescoes were painted with oil, not water-based, pigment
d. Minoan frescoes present dimension, unlike the Egyptian flat composite

b. Minoan frescoes appear on walls of homes and palaces, not tombs

Why do we think the Minoans abandoned Knossos in about 1450 BCE?
a. They were overwhelmed by the Mycenaean army
b. The palace was buried by lava from a volcanic eruption
c. The trade route shifted to the Greek mainland
d. The palace was destroyed by an enormous earthquake

a. They were overwhelmed by the Mycenaean army

Why were Heinrich Schliemann's discoveries at Hissarlik so astonishing?
a. He proved that Troy had existed
b. He uncovered the original Iliad manuscript
c. He discovered the Mycenaean Warrior Vase
d. He decoded the Linear B tablets found there

a. He proved that Troy had existed

What is the Greek concept of arête?
a. Showing compassion to one's enemies
b. Being the best one can be
c. The gods' role in determining humans' fate
d. Fidelity to one's spouse

b. Being the best one can be

According to Greek legend, why did Greece sink into a Dark Ages around 1100 BCE?
a. Dorians from the North overran Greece
b. The Trojan War decimated the Greeks
c. A volcanic eruption devastated Greece
d. The Mycenaeans set up a military state

a. Dorians from the North overran Greece

Why did Athens emerge from the Dark Ages as a leading polis?
a. It was the most isolated of the city-states
b. It was the largest in terms of square miles
c. It was on the seacoast and had the best harbor
d. It had provided a safe haven during the Dark Ages

d. It had provided a safe haven during the Dark Ages

What function did the korai, the female equivalent of the kouroi, seem to serve?
a. Decorations for private homes
b. Votive offerings to Athena
c. Mannequins for clothing shops
d. Commemorative grave markers

b. Votive offerings to Athena

Why is the celebrated poet Sappho so extraordinary for this period in Greece?
a. Sappho wrote lyric, not epic, poetry
b. Sappho was a female
c. Sappho likely was bisexual
d. Sappho was a slave

b. Sappho was a female

Why were the Greeks faced with rebuilding Athens after 479 BCE?
a. An earthquake had leveled it
b. The Spartans had burned it
c. A flood had devastated it
d. The Persians had destroyed it

d. The Persians had destroyed it

Why were the Athenian citizens endowed with so much leisure time?
a. They imported their food, so they did not have to work the fields
b. Revenue from the Delian League supported the Athenian citizens
c. Their humble living circumstances required minimal upkeep
d. Slaves outnumbered Athenian citizens more than two to one

d. Slaves outnumbered Athenian citizens more than two to one

Why did fifth-century Greeks not see themselves as at the mercy of the gods?
a. They viewed their gods as benevolent, incapable of harming humans
b. They believed natural forces were knowable, not punishment from a god
c. They considered their fates to be of little interest to the gods
d. They ceased to believe in the gods following the Persian War

b. They believed natural forces were knowable, not punishment from a god

How does the Kritios Boy define classical beauty?
a. He shows a lively posture and a sense of action
b. He shows mental as well as physical superiority
c. He is naked, a requirement for the "body beautiful"
d. He illustrates Plato's' "beautiful young boy

a. He shows a lively posture and a sense of action

Why was Doryphoros, or Spear Bearer, famous throughout the ancient world?
a. It was the first statue to illustrate the contrapposto stance
b. It deviated dramatically from the Egyptian models
c. It demonstrated Polyclitus's treatise on proportion
d. It occupied a place of honor in the Acropolis's Propylaia

c. It demonstrated Polyclitus's treatise on proportion

Why was Socrates not a staunch defender of democracy?
a. He believed that most people were incapable of exercising good government
b. As a metic, he was allowed no vote in Athenian political affairs
c. He disagreed with the City Council of Athens being chosen from the aristocracy
d. He believed that rule by an intellectual philosopher king was superior

a. He believed that most people were incapable of exercising good government

With which cult was drama originally associated?
a. The cult of Mithras
b. The cult of Isis
c. The cult of Cybele
d. The cult of Dionysus

d. The cult of Dionysus

What qualities define Hellenistic art?
a. Nobility and detachment
b. Animation, drama, and psychological complexity
c. Harmony between the natural world and the intellectual realm
d. Mathematical regularity and imposing size

b. Animation, drama, and psychological complexity

According to Aristotle, how could a person come to know universal truths?
a. By stripping away prejudice and historical conditioning
b. By studying the universal Forms of Justice, Beauty, and Love
c. By discovering how each individual human defines reality
d. By observing the material world itself in which reality exists

d. By observing the material world itself in which reality exists

Why can Hellenistic sculpture be equated with Aristotle's idea of catharsis?
a. Both portray brutal realism with characters
b. Both require figures in tragic circumstances
c. Both aim to elicit viewer emotional response
d. Both involve subjects in high social position

c. Both aim to elicit viewer emotional response

. To what two groups does Roman culture trace its origins?
a. The Dorians and the Phoenicians
b. The Greeks and the Etruscans
c. The Latiums and the Rutulians
d. The Egyptians and the Greeks

b. The Greeks and the Etruscans

According to the Roman poet Virgil, to whom do the Romans trace their origin?
a. Romulus
b. Zeus
c. The Trojans
d. Odysseus

d. Odysseus

When they overthrew the Etruscans in 510 BCE, what did the Romans decide not to have in their
society?
a. Taxes
b. A monarch
c. Class distinctions
d. Slaves

b. A monarch

Why would 2nd- and 1st-century BCE Romans portray their ancestors with verism, showing every
wart and wrinkle?
a. To frighten their youth into being respectful
b. To contrast foolish youthful optimism and ambition
c. To show the wisdom and experience of age
d. To emphasize the Roman virtue of truth

c. To show the wisdom and experience of age

Why were the Romans attracted to the philosophy of Stoicism?
a. They reveled in its tenet that pleasure is the object of human life
b. They embraced all things Greek, and Stoicism developed in Athens
c. They appreciated its rational detachment and practical principles
d. They were attracted to its promise of a pleasant afterlife

c. They appreciated its rational detachment and practical principles

Why did Augustus permanently banish the poet Ovid from Rome?
a. For stealing kisses from Augustus's daughter, Julia
b. For writing Ars Amatoria, a guidebook for having affairs
c. For living in open disregard of Augustus's family-centered policies
d. For parodying Virgil's epic in his earliest work, the Amores

b. For writing Ars Amatoria, a guidebook for having affairs

Why was the Pantheon constructed with a 30-foot-diameter oculus (hole) in its roof?
a. To prevent rain from pooling on the rooftop
b. To symbolize Jupiter's ever-watchful eye over Rome
c. To lighten the weight of the 20-foot-thick dome
d. To allow rooftop access for the dome's maintenance

b. To symbolize Jupiter's ever-watchful eye over Rome

Why is Pompeii such an important archaeological site?
a. It is the location of Augustus's wife's private vacation villa
b. Its aqueduct (Aqua Augusta) is the best preserved in Italy
c. It tells us most of what we know about everyday Roman life
d. Its ruins document Pliny the Younger's descriptions

c. It tells us most of what we know about everyday Roman life

Why did the Roman baths come to signal a decline in values and morals?
a. Prostitutes established their businesses in them
b. They came to symbolize material excess
c. They distracted Romans from the affairs of the state
d. They symbolized waste of labor and precious water

b. They came to symbolize material excess

Why, by the end of the third century, were the Romans justified in feeling politically and
culturally threatened by the Christians?
a. Christians made up nearly one-tenth of the empire's population
b. Constantine was conspiring with the Christians to stage a coup
c. Christian churches were outnumbering Roman temples in Rome
d. Christians were staging terrorist acts against Roman institutions

a. Christians made up nearly one-tenth of the empire's population

Why have the earliest ritual jade discs (bi) been found in tombs?
a. The Chinese believed that jade would absorb the person's soul
b. They served as payment for entrance into the afterlife
c. The Chinese believed that jade preserved the body from decay
d. The beasts on their rims were to protect the dead from demons

c. The Chinese believed that jade preserved the body from decay

According to Chinese legend, what inspired Fu Xi's invention of a pictographic writing system?
a. Visions that came to him in a dream
b. Random scratches he noticed on animal bones
c. Constellations and bird and animal footprints
d. Papyri left behind by seafaring Egyptians

c. Constellations and bird and animal footprints

To what does the Yi Jing (Book of Changes) provide a guide?
a. Interpreting the workings of the universe
b. Understanding the Chinese mythology
c. Translating the Chinese writing
d. Explaining traditional rules of behavior

a. Interpreting the workings of the universe

What does the yin-yang symbolize?
a. The harmonious merging of the Shang and the Zhou dynasties
b. The perpetual interplay and mutual relation among all things
c. The moment of transition that ultimately leads to wisdom
d. The five elements and the five powers of creation

b. The perpetual interplay and mutual relation among all things

What lies at the core of Confucianism?
a. Traditional Chinese values of self-discipline and proper relations among people
b. Knowledge and acceptance of one's assigned place in Chinese society
c. Absolute obedience to the state so as to curb the individual's evil nature
d. Acceptance of a diversity of beliefs, deities, and practices

a. Traditional Chinese values of self-discipline and proper relations among people

Why did Qin Shihuangdi order the building of the Great Wall of China?
a. To free up prisons by giving criminals and disfavored civil servants work
b. To establish tangible evidence of his status as "First Emperor"
c. To provide employment for soldiers languishing from lack of action
d. To discourage invasion from nomadic invaders from the north

d. To discourage invasion from nomadic invaders from the north

Why has Qin Shihuangdi's actual tomb never been excavated?
a. Its location has never been discovered
b. It may be surrounded by a river of mercury
c. It is located too deep in the ground
d. It would damage the terra cotta warriors

b. It may be surrounded by a river of mercury

Why did Prince Siddhartha Gautama leave the palace to live in the wilderness for 6 years?
a. He was actively seeking the Four Noble Truths
b. He was banished by his father for decrying war
c. He was dismayed by the poor state of Indian education
d. He was troubled by the suffering of all human beings

d. He was troubled by the suffering of all human beings

Why did Ashoka decry violence in 261 BCE and turn to Buddhism?
a. He suffered a crushing defeat by the Seleucids in battle
b. He saw a monk walking among the dead on a battlefield
c. He wished to establish diplomatic relations with the Greeks
d. He watched his best friend suffer and die on a battlefield

b. He saw a monk walking among the dead on a battlefield

Why, around 483 BCE, were eight of the earliest stupas built?
a. To contain Buddha's remains, which were divided into eight parts
b. To honor the eight yakshis, the Vedic female spirit figures
c. To serve as tombs for Buddha's eight wives
d. To signify the eight levels of Buddhist consciousness

a. To contain Buddha's remains, which were divided into eight parts

Why is Masada one of the most symbolic sites in all of Israel?
a. It contains the tomb of King Herod, who sought to kill the infant Jesus
b. It is the hill from which Jesus delivered his Sermon on the Mount
c. It was the site of Solomon's Temple, destroyed by Romans in 70 CE
d. It represents the sacrifice of Jews rather than submit to Roman defeat

d. It represents the sacrifice of Jews rather than submit to Roman defeat

Why around 168 BCE did the Jewish religion start becoming increasingly messianic?
a. The Seleucid king Antiochus IV tried to impose worship of Greek gods on the Jews
b. The Babylonians destroyed the Second Temple of Jerusalem
c. The Romans conquered Jerusalem and imposed Roman rule
d. The Persians liberated the Jews from the Babylonian Captivity

a. The Seleucid king Antiochus IV tried to impose worship of Greek gods on the Jews

Why did Jesus of Nazareth identify himself as the Messiah?
a. He desired to attract evangelists to assist him
b. He needed to establish his identity for the Jews
c. He never made this claim; his followers did
d. He wanted to antagonize the Roman leaders

c. He never made this claim; his followers did

According to the evangelist Paul, what did sinners have to do to earn redemption?
a. Show their faith in Christ and his salvation
b. Refrain from sex except for procreation
c. Spread the good news of Jesus's life
d. Dedicate their lives to performing good works

a. Show their faith in Christ and his salvation

Why did the developing Church ban the Gnostic texts?
a. They were too mystical for non-intellectuals to understand
b. They were at odds with what would become normative belief
c. They were written centuries after the other versions of Jesus's life
d. They were too similar to Indian philosophy and deemed pagan

b. They were at odds with what would become normative belief

Why did early Christians develop symbols to identify themselves to each other?
a. They were an illiterate people
b. They considered pictures a sin
c. They rejected the Latin alphabet
d. They feared persecution for their faith

d. They feared persecution for their faith

Why was the Nicene Creed so important?
a. It created a unified, universal faith
b. It legalized the practice of Christianity
c. It produced an official Bible
d. It ended religious persecution

a. It created a unified, universal faith

Why was early Christianity syncretistic, incorporating into itself pagan mythic traditions?
a. To round out the unknowns in Christianity's historical record
b. To convert pagans by presenting Christianity in their terms
c. To satisfy the Romans who wished to retain familiar rituals
d. To prevent Christianity from being viewed as a secret cult

b. To convert pagans by presenting Christianity in their terms

Why in 325 CE did Constantine move his capital from Rome to Byzantium, which he renamed
Constantinople?
a. Rome was too landlocked for his building programs
b. Constantinople was closer to the Christian holy lands
c. Rome was too vulnerable to attack from Germanic tribes
d. Constantinople occupied center location in the new empire

a. Rome was too landlocked for his building programs

Why did the San Vitale artists depict their subjects in reverse perspective and in shallow space?
a. To draw the viewer's eye to one vanishing point
b. To reject earthly illusion for the sacred space of the image
c. To cause the objects that are further away seem smaller
d. To make the objects seem to be floating in ethereal space

b. To reject earthly illusion for the sacred space of the image

Why was the Kaaba significant to the Bedouins?
a. It enclosed Mecca's largest natural spring
b. It was their leader's home
c. It marked their trade route's midpoint
d. It housed images of their gods

d. It housed images of their gods

Why is the Kaaba significant to Muslims today?
a. It represents the physical center of the planet and universe
b. It houses the remains of the prophet Mohammad
c. It is the largest mosque on the Arabian peninsula
d. It serves as a depository for Islamic treasures

a. It represents the physical center of the planet and universe

What does the word Islam mean?
a. Chosen
b. Recitation
c. Servant
d. Submission

d. Submission

Why do Muslims believe that the Qur'an cannot be translated?
a. Arabic does not translate well
b. The rhyme scheme will be lost
c. Muhammad decreed no translation
d. It is the direct word of God

d. It is the direct word of God

What is the hadith?
a. The Muslim's history
b. Islam's five pillars
c. Mohammad's sayings
d. Verses in the surahs

c. Mohammad's sayings

Why is the Muslim year shorter than the Christian year?
a. The Muslim year is based on lunar cycles
b. The Muslims exclude holy days from count
c. The Muslim week is only six days
d. The Muslims use the Hebrew calendar

a. The Muslim year is based on lunar cycles

What structure inspired the design of most mosques?
a. The Kaaba in Mecca
b. Muhammad's house in Medina
c. Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem
d. The Hagia Sophia in Constantinople

b. Muhammad's house in Medina

Why did Mohammad allow Muslim men to have up to four wives?
a. To provide protective charity
b. To convert non-Muslim women
c. To increase the Muslim population
d. To lessen the chance of adultery

a. To provide protective charity

Why perhaps were conquered Africans eager to convert to Islam?
a. To receive a share of war booty
b. To avoid being killed
c. To avoid enslavement
d. To gain an army position

c. To avoid enslavement

As reported in the chapter's "Continuity and Change" section, why did Islam inevitably come into
conflict with Christianity?
a. Early Christians' intolerance of religions other than their own
b. Islam's belief that Jesus was a mere prophet, not the son of God
c. Early Christians' insistence that religious art was not sacrilege
d. Islam's desire to control Jerusalem, which the Christians claimed

b. Islam's belief that Jesus was a mere prophet, not the son of God

Why did early Buddhists believe portraying Buddha in art was impossible?
a. No image could portray his greatness
b. He had passed to nirvana
c. Buddhism forbids figural images in its art
d. No artist had ever seen Buddha

b. He had passed to nirvana

Why did Song painters value landscape above other subjects?
a. Its vastness reflected China itself
b. It offered a constantly changing subject
c. Its beauty symbolized the Chinese people
d. It embodied the principle behind all things

d. It embodied the principle behind all things

What did bamboo in the exiled scholar-painters' art symbolize?
a. Chinese peoples' dominance of the land
b. Theft of Chinese soil by Mongol invaders
c. Chinese peoples' ability to bend and not break
d. Unifying principle of the Chinese world

c. Chinese peoples' ability to bend and not break

What is the goal of every Tibetan Mahayana Buddhist before crossing into paradise?
a. To reach enlightenment
b. To reach nirvana
c. To help others reach enlightenment
d. To serve as a lama (religious leader)

c. To help others reach enlightenment

What "world's first" is Murasaki Shikibu's The Tale of Genji considered to be?
a. Book written by a woman
b. Published diary
c. Illustrated book
d. Novel

d. Novel

What immediate act by the first shogun, Yoritomo, defined his rule?
a. Land grants to his followers
b. Destruction of Buddhist temples
c. Establishment of Confucianism as state religion
d. Cessation of contact with the outside world

a. Land grants to his followers

Why did Africa's Ife people consider their king's head of supreme importance?
a. His was the most decoratively scarred
b. It housed the tribe's collective knowledge
c. It was home of the spirit
d. His symbolized triumph over pain

c. It was home of the spirit

Why must the Yoruba king cover his face with rows of beads?
a. To prevent his subordinates from looking at him
b. To conceal his identity from his people
c. To shield viewers from the power of his gaze
d. To avoid seeing the suffering of his people

c. To shield viewers from the power of his gaze

What fundamental tool of civilization did the Classic Era Mesoamerican cultures lack?
a. The wheel
b. Metal tools
c. A writing system
d. Irrigation

a. The wheel

Why did the Incas build the remote Machu Picchu, high in the Andes?
a. As a royal retreat for a ruler
b. To hide from Spanish invaders
c. To move closer to their sky gods
d. As a settlement for their gold miners

a. As a royal retreat for a ruler

What in the Sutton Hoo burial ceremony did Christianity forbid?
a. Ornate decoration
b. Mummification
c. Burial with war gear
d. Cremation

d. Cremation

What advantages did feudalism offer the fiefs?
a. Higher social status
b. Free education
c. Use of land and protection
d. Payment for their services

c. Use of land and protection

What pilgrimage destination was most difficult to reach?
a. Rome
b. Lourdes
c. Santiago de Compostela
d. Jerusalem

d. Jerusalem

What literary work describes a scene similar to the Sutton Hoo discovery?
a. Beowulf
b. The Luttrell Psalter
c. Song of Roland
d. The Dream of the Rood

a. Beowulf

Why does Beowulf travel from Sweden to Denmark?
a. To sacrifice himself for the greater good
b. To present gold to King Hrothgar
c. To kill the monster Grendel
d. To meet his betrothed, Wealtheow

c. To kill the monster Grendel

Why did Pope Leo III crown Charlemagne the first Holy Roman Emperor?
a. For building the monastery at St. Gall, Switzerland
b. For agreeing to support Leo in the First Crusade
c. For Christianizing the people of his vast empire
d. For driving the Germanic Lombards out of Italy

c. For Christianizing the people of his vast empire

Why did Charlemagne insist upon a Christian education for his people?
a. To gain more favor from Pope Leo
b. So they could read aloud and sing in church
c. To make more convert to Christianity
d. So more would enter the priesthood

b. So they could read aloud and sing in church

What architectural feature especially distinguishes a Romanesque church?
a. Native stone
b. Soaring spires
c. Stained-glass windows
d. Barrel vaults

d. Barrel vaults

Why were Romanesque churches' portals of special importance?
a. To showcase local stonemasons' skills
b. To define the boundary between secular and sacred space
c. To remind visitors that they would enter the dark (die)
d. To preview the wonders that lay within the church

b. To define the boundary between secular and sacred space

Why was the courtly love poetry written in the common language instead of Latin?
a. Latin was the language of religion, not love
b. Eleanor of Aquitaine did not understand Latin
c. Latin was not as musical as was the vernacular
d. More people would be able to enjoy it

d. More people would be able to enjoy it

Who designed the Abbey of Saint-Denis's renovation and thus began the Gothic style?
a. Abbot Jesse
b. Thomas Aquinas
c. Abbot Suger
d. Louis VII

c. Abbot Suger

Why were so many of the cathedrals called Notre Dame ("Our Lady")?
a. They were dedicated to France's Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine
b. They were dedicated to France, personified as "our lady"
c. They were dedicated to Mary Magdalene, the "bride of Christ"
d. They were dedicated to the Virgin Mary, Queen of Heaven

d. They were dedicated to the Virgin Mary, Queen of Heaven

What from Chartres Cathedral survived the devastating fire of 1194?
a. Abbott Suger's preserved body
b. Mary's tunic and a window portraying her
c. The Gothic-design south spire
d. The rose window and its lancets

b. Mary's tunic and a window portraying her

Why is the Jesse tree a common stained-glass motif?
a. It connects nature to the heavenly realm
b. It symbolizes the people's ability to ascend to heaven
c. It reminds the people of Jesus's suffering for their sins
d. It establishes Mary's royal lineage from King David

d. It establishes Mary's royal lineage from King David

Why did the Gothic cathedrals include flying buttresses?
a. To allow for larger windows and portals
b. To help spread out the weight of the vaults
c. To divert water from the roof and walls
d. To provide interior support for the arches

b. To help spread out the weight of the vaults

Where was the first university founded?
a. Oxford, England
b. Rome, Italy
c. Paris, France
d. Bologna, Italy

d. Bologna, Italy

On whose relationship was the popular poem the Roman de la Rose based?
a. Peter Abelard and Heloise
b. Jesus and Mary Magdalene
c. Eleanor of Aquitaine and Henry II
d. Romeo and Juliet

a. Peter Abelard and Heloise

What relic did Louis IX purchase on Crusade in Constantinople to display at Sainte-Chapelle?
a. The Virgin Mary's tunic
b. Christ's crown of thorns
c. Mary Magdalene's bones
d. John the Baptist's skull

b. Christ's crown of thorns

Why did Pisano sculpt his Mary, Sister of Moses, which sits on the Siena Cathedral, to lean
forward?
a. To correct the illusion of curving inward
b. So she would fit underneath the gable
c. So the viewers below could see her face
d. To give her drapery more dramatic folds

c. So the viewers below could see her face

Why did the Florentine families donate chapels to the mendicant churches?
a. So they dictate the churches' interior decoration
b. To guarantee the families' salvation
c. So Florence's churches would outnumber Siena's
d. To gain favor with Pope Innocent III

b. To guarantee the families' salvation

According to legend, who founded Siena?
a. The Etruscan king Tarquin the Proud
b. Remus's sons, Senius and Aschius
c. The Roman emperor Augustus
d. The Frankish king Charlemagne

b. Remus's sons, Senius and Aschius

Why were Siena's guilds able to rise to such levels of power?
a. Siena was an important manufacturing city
b. Siena's guilds led a successful revolt against their feudal lord
c. Siena's guilds supported the Pope, who awarded them privileges
d. Siena supplied all of Italy with stained-glass windows

a. Siena was an important manufacturing city

On what trade was Florence's wealth based?
a. Textiles
b. Gold
c. Raw wool
d. Olive oil

a. Textiles

Who in Florence was eligible to serve in the government?
a. Only guild members
b. Members of the Guelph party
c. Any free man
d. Members of the nobility

a. Only guild members

How does Duccio's Maestrá break from Byzantine portrayals of Mary and the Christ child?
a. Mary and Christ are larger than the surrounding attendants
b. Mary's body has substance, and Christ resembles an actual baby
c. Mary and Christ are depicted in reverse perspective
d. Mary and Christ look straight out, engaging the viewer

b. Mary's body has substance, and Christ resembles an actual baby

Why did the Scrovegni family build and then hire Giotto to decorate Arena Chapel in Padua?
a. To serve as the tomb of their patriarch, Reginaldo
b. To sanctify the site of a Roman pagan arena
c. To atone for their flagrant usury
d. To elevate their status as wealthy merchants

c. To atone for their flagrant usury

In the Arena Chapel frescoes, what is Giotto the first artist since antiquity to depict?
a. People from behind
b. A nude female
c. A contrapposto stance
d. Flying angels

a. People from behind

Why does Dante place Judas, Brutus, and Cassius in the lowest level of his hell?
a. They were hypocrites
b. They were traitors
c. They were suicides
d. They were wrathful

b. They were traitors

What literary trend does Boccaccio's Decameron introduce into Western literature?
a. A framing tale
b. Romanticism
c. Satire
d. Social realism

d. Social realism

In what language did Chaucer write his Tales?
a. Anglo-Saxon
b. Latin
c. French
d. Middle English

d. Middle English

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