Preparation for Disposition NBE

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AUTHORIZING AGENT(S)

An authorizing agent(s) is a person legally entitled to authorize the cremation of human remains.

BODY PARTS

Limbs or other portions of the anatomy that are removed from a person or human remains for medical purposes during treatment, surgery, biopsy, autopsy or medical research; or human bodies or any portion of bodies that have been donated to science for medical research purposes.

BURIAL TRANSIT PERMIT

A permit for disposition of a dead human body as required by state legal requirements. The title of this document may vary from state to state.

CASKET

A rigid container that is designed for the encasement of human remains; is usually constructed of wood, metal or like material and ornamented and lined with fabric, and which may or may not be combustible.

CHANGE OF OWNERSHIP

A transfer of more than 50 percent of the stock or assets of a crematory authority.

CLOSED CONTAINER

Any container in which cremated remains can be placed and closed in a manner so as to prevent leakage or spillage of remains or the entrance of foreign material.

CREMATED REMAINS

All the remains of the cremated human body recovered after the completion of the cremation process, including pulverization, which leaves only bone fragments reduced to unidentifiable dimensions and may possibly include the residue of any foreign matter including casket material, bridgework or eyeglasses that were cremated with the human remains.

CREMATION

The technical process, using direct flame and heat, that reduces human remains to bone fragments. The reduction takes place through heat and evaporation. Cremation includes to processing and usually includes the pulverization of the bone fragments.

CREMATION CHAMBER

The enclosed space within which the cremation process takes place. Cremation chambers covered by these procedures shall be used exclusively for the cremation of human remains.

CREMATION CONTAINER

The container in which the human remains are transported to the crematory and placed in the cremation chamber for a cremation. A cremation container should meet substantially all of the following standards:
(1) Be composed of readily combustible materials suitable for cremation;
(2) Be able to be closed in order to provide a complete covering for the human remains;
(3) Be resistant to leakage or spillage;
(4) Be rigid enough for handling with ease; and
(5) Be able to provide protection for the health, safety and personal integrity of crematory personnel.

CREMATION INTERMENT CONTAINER (URN VAULT)

A rigid outer container that, subject to a cemetery's rules and regulations, is composed of concrete, steel, fiberglass or some similar material in which an urn is placed prior to being interred in the ground, and which is designed to withstand prolonged exposure to the elements and to support the earth above the urn.

CREMATORY AUTHORITY

The legal entity, or the authorized representative of the legal entity, that is licensed by the state to operate a crematory and perform cremation.

CREMATORY

The building or portion of a building that houses the cremation chamber and the holding facility.

DEPARTMENT

The state agency that administers this law.

FINAL DISPOSITION

The burial or other disposition on a permanent basis of a dead human body, cremated remains or parts of a dead human body.

FUNERAL DIRECTOR

A person known by the title of "funeral director," "funeral director and embalmer" or other similar words or titles, defined by state law and licensed by the state to practice funeral directing or funeral directing and embalming.

FUNERAL ESTABLISHMENT

A building or separate portion of a building having a specific street address and location and devoted to activities relating to the shelter, care, custody and preparation of a deceased human body and which may contain facilities for funeral, memorial and visitation services.

HOLDING FACILITY

An area within or adjacent to the crematory facility designated for the retention of human remains prior to cremation that shall:
(1) Comply with any applicable public-health law;
(2) Preserve the dignity of the human remains;
(3) Recognize the integrity, health and safety of the crematory authority personnel operating the crematory; and
(4) Be secure from access by anyone other than authorized personnel.

HUMAN REMAINS

The body of a deceased person, or part of a body or limb that has been removed from a living person, including the body, part of a body or limb in any stage of decomposition.

NICHE

A compartment or cubicle for the memorialization or permanent placement of an urn containing cremated remains.

PROCESSING

The reduction of identifiable bone fragments after the completion of the cremation process to unidentifiable bone fragments by manual means.

PULVERIZATION

The reduction of identifiable bone fragments after the completion of the cremation and processing to granulated particles by manual or mechanical means.

SCATTERING AREA

A designated area for the scattering of cremated remains usually in a cemetery and located on dedicated cemetery property where cremated remains, which have been removed from their container, can be mixed with, or placed on top of, the soil or ground cover or buried in an underground receptacle on a commingled basis.

TEMPORARY CONTAINER

A temporary container is a receptacle for cremated remains usually made of cardboard, plastic or similar material designed to hold the cremated remains until an urn or other permanent container is acquired.

URN

A receptacle designed to permanently encase the cremated remains.

Air

All air is supplied to the equipment for combustion, cooling, ventilation, etc.

Primary Air

Any air, controlled with respect to quantity and location, forced or induced, supplied to the cremation chamber for the purpose of promoting combustion of the combustible materials in the chamber.

Secondary Air

Any air, controlled with respect to quantity and location, supplied through ports in the wall, roof of the secondary combustion chamber, for the purpose of completing combustion of the combustible materials in the gasses from the cremation chamber or to reduce operating temperatures within the cremator.

Afterburner

Chamber within a cremator where unburned combustible materials from the primary chamber are conveyed to facilitate additional combustion. Sometimes referred to as a secondary burner.

Afterchamber

Chamber where unburned combustible material from the primary chamber is completely burned.

Atomize

To break into tiny bits, or into a fine liquid mist or spray

Baffle

Any refractory construction intended to change the direction of flow or velocity of the products of combustion

Blower

Provides excess air for combustion, maintains a negative draft through the interior chambers, and cools exhaust gases before they exit the stack.

BTU

British thermal unit: the amount of heat necesssary to raise the temperature of one pound (1lb) of water one (1) degree Fahrenheit at or near maximum density.

Burner

A device for the introduction of a flame by delivering fuel and its combustion air at desired velocities and turbulence to establish and maintain proper ignition and combustion of the fuel. Types of burners include Afterburner, Primary Burner and Secondary Burner.

Calcination

The heating process of reducing the body, wrapping and/or the container to their basic elements in the form of cremated remains through combustion.

Chimney

A vertical (stack) or horizontal (flue) passage for conducting products of combustion to the atmosphere.

Combustion

A chemical reaction that results from mixing fuel and oxygen in the presence of an ignition source (heat, flame, spark, etc.) and releases light and heat.

Cremation

The process of reducing the body to ash and bone fragments through flame, heat and vaporization.

Cremation Container

THe case/container in which the human body is delivered to the crematory and in which it is cremated. The container must conform to these guidelines, Be composed of a suitable material, Be rigid enough for handling ease. Assures protection of the health, Provides proper covering for the remains. Meets moral codes for respect and dignity.

Cremator

The total mechanical unity for the creation process. A type IV incinerator designed for cremating human and animal remains.

Downpass

Chambers or gas passage placed between two chambers to carry the products of combustion in a downward direction.

Draft

The pressure difference between the cremator or any component part and the atmosphere which causes a continuous flow of air and products of combustion through the gas passages of the cremator to the atmosphere.

Forced Draft

The pressure difference created by the action of a fan, blower, or ejector, which supplies the primary combustion air above atmospheric pressure.

Induced Draft

The pressure difference created by the action of a fan, blower or ejector, which is located between the incinerator and the stack, or at the stack exit.

Natural Draft

The pressure difference created by stack or chimney due to its height, and the temperature difference, Between the flue gases and the atmosphere.

Draft Controls

Dampers, linkages used to regulate air flow.

Emissions

Combustion products such as smoke, soot, sulfur, sulfur dioxide, etc.

EPA

United States Environmental Protections Agency

Expansion or Settling Chamber

Any chamber designed to reduce the velocity of the products of combustion to promote the settling of fly ash from the gas stream.

Flame Scanner

Sensor which detects or monitors proper ignition bases on the presence of ultraviolet rays from the flames.

Flue

A horizontal passage for conducting products of combustion into the atmosphere.

Flue Gas

All gases which leave the cremator by way of the flue, including gaseous products of combustion, water vapor, excess air and nitrogen (sometimes referred to as the products of combustion).

Fly Ash

Suspended ash particles, charred paper, dust, soot, or other partially incinerated matter, carried in the products of combustion. ( Most often referred to as particulate matter or particulates)

Hearth

A soild surface upon which the human remains are placed for the cremation process.

Cold Hearth

Hearth on which drying or combustion results from the action of hot combustion gases passing only over the top surface of the hearth.

Hot Hearth

Hearth on which drying or combustion results from action of hot combustion gases passing over both the top and bottom of the hearth.

Hearth Air

Excess air injected along the sides of the primary combustion chamber to assist the combustion process and allow the primary chamber to cool following the cremation process. Hearth air in generally used during the second half of the cremation.

Mixing Chamber

Chamber usually placed between the primary combustion chamber and the secondary combustion chamber where through mixing of the products of combustion is accomplished by turbulence by increased velocities of gases, checkerwork and/or turns indirection of the gas flow.

Opacity

The degree to which a substance allows light to pass through.

Particulates Particulate Matter

Small pieces of liquids or solids that include dust, fumes, smoke, mists or sprays, charred paper, soot or other partially incinerated matter.

Photo cell

Sensor that provides the presence of flame.

Pilot

A smaller gas burner used to light the main burner.

Pollutants

Chemical compounds (gaseous or particulate matter is combustion/flue gases that present human health and environmental concerns.

Pollution Control system

a system on some cremators that monitors the visibility (opacity) through flue gases as they enter the stack. The PCS detects the presents of smoke ( possible pollutants) and is designed to allow the operator to correct the operating conditions.

Primary Combustion Chamber

Chamber within a cremator where primary ignition and burning of the remains occurs.

PSI

Pounds per square inch - unit of pressure

Pulverize

The process of reducing the size of the cremated remains after cremation.

Refractory

Special high temperature lining for the combustion chambers.

Secondary Combustion Chamber

Chamber where unburned combustible material from the primary chamber are completely burned.

Settling or Expansion chamber

Any chamber designed to reduce the velocity of the products of combustion to promote the settling of fly ash from the gas stream..

Smoke Alarm

A device in the stack which responds to the detection of smoke by setting of an alarm and/or taking some type of corrective action.

Stack

A vertical passage for conducting products of combustion to the atmosphere.

Source Test

Test conducted by federal state, or local regulatory agency to measure pollutants released into the atmosphere from a crematory, in amounts that exceed regulatory requirements.

Throat Air

Air introduced into the afterchamber for emission control, usually during the first half of the cremation.

Alternative Container

- An unfinished wood box or other non-metal receptacle or enclosure, without ornamentation or a fixed interior lining, which is designed for the encasement of human remains and which is made of fiberboard, pressed-wood, composition materials (with or without an outside covering) or like materials.

Base

the lower or supporting part of a monument. In some monuments, there may be a first, second, and third base.

Block

a subdivision of a cemetery containing several lots

Catacombs

originated in ancient Rome as excavated cemeteries cut out of soft rock for the tombs of wealthy Christians; later became a place for religious rites to avoid persecution (H70)

Cemetery

An area of ground set aside and dedicated for the final disposition of dead human remains.

Cenotaph

a monument erected to the memory of the dead, with the dead human body not present

Columbarium

A structure, room, or space in a mausoleum or other building containing niches or recesses used to hold cremated remains.

Cool Cremation

The first cremation of the day (the retort is cool because it has not been used)

Cremated remains

The result of the reduction of a dead body to inorganic bone fragments by intense heat.

Cremation

The reduction of a dead human body to inorganic bone fragments by intense heat in a specifically designed retort or chamber.

Crematory (Crematorium)

A furnace or retort for cremating dead human bodies, a building that houses a retort.

Die (Tablet)

main part of a monument, the upright portion above the base where the inscription is located

Entombment

the placing of remains in a crypt in a mausoleum

Epitaph

a commemorative inscription on a tomb or cemetery marker

Flush Marker (Flat)

a small headstone which is set with its top even with the surrounding terrain. They are generally 24" x 14", but can be larger or smaller depending on cemetery requirements.

Grave

an excavation in the earth as a place for interment; interment space

Grave Straps

webbing or similar material used for lowering the casket into the grave

Horizontal Tablet

a type of cemetery monument in which the die is wider than it is tall

Inurnment

The act of placing cremains in an urn. (CANA definition) act of placing cremated remains in a niche or grave.

Lawn Crypt

A grave space where two or more persons may be buried in a grave liner which have been stacked one on top of the other, with the first person who dies being buried in the deepest grave liner with subsequent burials on top. (can be pre-placed chambers and installed in quantity; either side by side or multiple depths)

Lot (plot)

A subdivision in a cemetery which consists of several graves or interment spaces

Mausoleum

A building containing crypts or vaults for entombment

Memorial Park

A cemetery, or section of a cemetery, with only flush to the ground type grave markers

Memorial Service

Funeral rites with the body not present

National Cemetery

A cemetery created and maintained under an Act of Congress for burial of veterans of military service and their eligible family members (Created in 1862 during the Civil War)

Niche

A recess or space in a Columbarium used for the permanent placing of cremated remains

Perpetual Care

An arrangement made by the cemetery whereby funds are set aside, the income from which is used to maintain the cemetery indefinitely.

Retort

The burning chamber in a crematory

Section

The largest subdivision of a cemetery

Sexton

One who is in charge of the cemetery; the caretaker of a church. Historically, the church caretaker who had responsibility for church property, ringing of bells and digging of graves in the churchyard cemetery. During the Middle Ages most funeral practices were under the direction of church officials.

Slant Marker

a cemetery marker that has a face that has an angle greater than 45 degrees but less than 90 degrees in relationship to the terrain.

Tomb

A general term designating those places suitable for the reception of a dead human body

Undeveloped

real estate property that is part of the cemetery but is not presently suitable for interment, entombment, or inurnment

Urn

a container for cremated remains, a vase with a foot or pedestal

Vertical Tablet

a type of cemetery monument in which the die is taller than it is wide

Artificial grass

Imitation grass made in mat form and used at the cemetery to cover the earth around the grave.

Bevel Top Marker -

a small headstone, set above ground, with a slightly slanting top.

Bench Memorial -

a bench made out of granite. They typically consist of a top piece supported by two standards. These can serve as enduring memorials dedicating a park or other suitable location. They can also be used as cemetery memorials. Permission is needed by the cemetery before a bench memorial may be installed

Burial vault —

outer enclosure for caskets placed in the grave; originally intended to prevent grave robbery

Canopy (Cemetery tent) -

A portable shelter employed to cover the grave area during the committal.

Corrugated Container -

a container used to hold a dead human body which is constructed out of a type of cardboard, which is made with a series of alternate folds and ridges

Cremation Casket -

an environmentally safe casket which is designed for encasing dead human remains for cremation

Crypt -

A chamber in a mausoleum, of sufficient size, generally used to contain the casketed remains of a deceased person.

Disinterment (exhumation) -

the removal of a dead body or remains from its place of repose after disposition has been completed. In the case of burial, it means digging up and removal of the remains; in the case of cremation, the removal of ashes from their repository.

Graveside service —

A ceremony or ritual, religious or otherwise, conducted at the graveInter (inhume) - to bury in the ground.

Interment (Burial, Inhumement/Inhumation) -

The act of placing the dead human body in the ground

Memorial gathering -

A scheduled assembly of family and friends following a death.

Mound burial -

ancient Viking custom; after deceased was placed in his boat with items necessary for the spirit to maintain the position held on earth, all was cremated and the pyre then covered with earth. (F&S)

Ossuary -

receptacle for communal placement of cremated remains

Pouch -

a leak resistant zippered bag designed to contain a dead human body and body fluids and is used mainly for the removal of dead human remains from the place of death

Pulverize -

The process of reducing the cremated remains into ashes.

Receiving vault -

A structure so designed for the temporary storage of bodies which are not to be immediately interred.

Scattering Garden -

a section in a cemetery set aside for the scattering of cremated human remains.

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