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Computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, and rootkits are classified as ____, which are programs that act without a user's knowledge and deliberately alter the computer's operations.

malware

A particularly devastating type of DoS attack is the ____ DoS attack, in which multiple unsuspecting computers are used to attack multiple computer
networks.

distributed

A ____ is a numeric password either assigned by a company or selected by a user.

PIN

Digital forensics is used by ____.

all of the above. used by law enforcement, criminal prosecutors, military intelligence, insurance agencies, and information security departments in the private sector.

To read encrypted data, the recipient must ____, or decipher, it into a readable form.

decrypt

When a mobile user connects to a main office using a standard Internet connection, a ____ provides the mobile user with a secure connection to the
company network server.

virtual private network (VPN)

A(n) ____ occurs when the incoming electrical power increases significantly above the normal 120 volts

Overvoltage

A(n) ____ suppressor uses special
electrical components to smooth out minor noise, provide a stable current flow, and keep an overvoltage from reaching a computer and other electronic
equipment.

surge

____ means in a location separate from the computer site.

Offsite

With a(n) ____, users choose which folders and files to include in a backup.

selective backup.

Some perpetrators use a technique called ____ in which they attempt to connect to wireless networks via their notebook computers while driving a vehicle through areas they suspect have a wireless network.

war driving

____ is an applied science devoted to incorporating comfort, efficiency, and safety into the design of items in the workplace.

Ergonomics

Computer ____ are the moral guidelines that govern the use of computers and information systems.

ethics

Information ____ refers to the right of individuals and companies to deny or restrict the collection and use of information about them.

privacy

A ____ is a small text file that a Web server stores on a user's computer.

cookie

Many businesses use ____ to limit
employees' Web access.

content filtering

Employee ____ involves the use of
computers to observe, record, and review an employee's use of a computer, including communications such as e-mail
messages, keyboarding activity, and Web sites visited.

monitoring

Web ____ software is a program that restricts access to specified Web sites.

filtering

Many Web sites, like that in the
accompanying figure, require a user to enter a ____, which is a private combination of characters associated with a user name that allows access to certain computer resources.

password

To avoid items like that shown in the accompanying figure, users can sign up for ____, which is a service from an Internet service provider that blocks e-mail messages from designated sources.

e-mail filtering

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