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#'s 168-250

When Andy becomes upset about getting a poor grade, he typically fails to realize that he feels scared. This lack of self-insight best illustrates an inadequate level of

emotional intelligence.

Brain size (adjusted for body size) is ________ correlated with intelligence. The speed of taking in perceptual information is ________ correlated with intelligence.

positively; positively

Lewis Terman's widely used American revision of Binet's original intelligence test was the

Stanford-Binet.

Twelve-year-old Norman has an IQ of 75 on the original version of the Stanford-Binet. His mental age is

9.

Sorina has a mental age of 10 and an IQ of 125 as measured by the Stanford-Binet. Sorina's chronological age is

8.

The final exam in a calculus course would be an example of a(n) ________ test

achievement

Aptitude tests are specifically designed to

predict ability to learn a new skill.

It would be reasonable to suggest that the Flynn effect is due in part to

increasingly improved childhood health and nutrition.

A test is reliable if it

yields dependably consistent scores.

Melinda completed the Computer Programming Aptitude Test when she applied for a position with Beta Electronics. Six months later, she took the same test when she applied for a position with another company. The fact that her scores were almost identical on the two occasions suggests that the test has a high degree of

reliability.

A test that measures or predicts what it is supposed to is said to have a high degree of

validity.

If a road test for a driver's license adequately samples the tasks a driver routinely faces, the test is said to

have content validity.

The heritability of intelligence refers to

the percentage of variation in intelligence within a group that is attributable to genetic factors.

Psychiatrists and psychologists would be likely to identify agoraphobia as a psychological disorder because it is

personally dysfunctional.

The conception of psychological disorders as biologically based sicknesses is known as the

medical model.

Dr. McIntosh emphasizes that depression often involves the interactive influences of self-focused rumination, rejection from others, and low serotonin levels. Dr. McIntosh's emphasis best illustrates

a biopsychosocial approach.

DSM-IV-TR focuses on clinicians' reports of observable behavior in order to

facilitate the reliability of diagnoses.

In a study by David Rosenhan (1973), researchers were admitted as patients into various mental hospitals after they falsely claimed to be "hearing voices." This study best illustrated the negative effects of

diagnostic labels.

A deluded Scotsman, Daniel M'Naughten, tried to assassinate a government official in 1843. He was sent to a mental hospital rather than to a prison because he was judged to

be insane.

A generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by

a continuous state of tension, apprehension, and autonomic nervous system arousal.

Episodes of intense dread that last for several minutes and are accompanied by shortness of breath, trembling, dizziness, or heart palpitations are most characteristic of a(n)

panic disorder.

An anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts and actions is called a(n)

obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Repeated distressing dreams and intrusive memories of an intensely fearful and life-threatening experience are symptoms most commonly associated with

post-traumatic stress disorder.

Experiencing physical symptoms, such as blindness or paralysis, that make no physiological sense is indicative of

conversion disorder.

Rachel is convinced that her occasional headaches are caused by a malignant brain tumor. Although several physicians have assured her that she has no serious physical problem, Rachel continues to seek medical attention for a brain tumor. Her behavior provides an example of

hypochondriasis.

Dissociative disorders are most likely to be characterized by

disruptions in conscious awareness and sense of identity.

A major depressive disorder is most likely to be characterized by

feelings of personal worthlessness.

Abnormally low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin are associated with

depression.

Flat affect and catatonia are symptoms most closely associated with

schizophrenia.

Wilma is extremely agitated because she hears voices that tell her to seduce the male nurses in her hospital ward. Wilma is most clearly suffering from

hallucinations.

Seeing one-eyed monsters would be a(n) ________. Believing that you are Christopher Columbus would be a ________.

hallucination; delusion

Personality disorders are best described as

inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.

A trained therapist who uses psychological techniques to assist someone to overcome excessive anxiety would generally be best described as a

psychotherapist.

Schizophrenia is a disorder that is MOST likely to be treated with

biomedical therapies.

Dr. Byrne is a clinical psychologist who often uses operant conditioning techniques to treat her clients. She also encourages them to modify their thought patterns, and on occasion she interprets their transference behaviors. Dr. Byrne's therapeutic approach would best be described as

eclectic.

Sigmund Freud introduced a form of psychotherapy known as

psychoanalysis.

When Molly told her therapist about her frightening car accident, the therapist instructed her to close her eyes and verbalize any further thoughts stimulated by this experience, even if they were scary or embarrassing. The therapist was making use of a technique known as

free association.

Carl Rogers is known for the development of

client-centered therapy.

Humanistic therapists are most likely to

emphasize the importance of self-awareness for psychological adjustment.

Which of the following therapies is more concerned with removing specific troubling symptoms than with providing special insights into the personality of the client?

behavior therapy

Benny's mother tries to reduce his fear of sailing by giving the 3-year-old his favorite candy as soon as they board the boat. The mother's strategy best illustrates

counterconditioning.

Systematic desensitization is a form of ________, which is a type of ________.

counterconditioning; behavior therapy

Mr. Vogt is terribly fearful of being alone in his own house at night. To reduce this fear, a behavior therapist would most likely use

systematic desensitization.

Aversive conditioning involves

associating unwanted behaviors with unpleasant experiences.

Whenever 2-year-old Calista runs into the street in front of her house, her mother immediately spanks her. The mother's technique most closely resembles the procedure known as

aversive conditioning.

Aaron Beck has used gentle questioning intended to reveal depressed clients' irrational thinking. His therapeutic approach best illustrates

cognitive therapy.

Group therapy is typically more effective than individual therapy for

enabling people to discover that others have problems similar to their own.

Research on the effectiveness of psychotherapy indicates that:

clients are generally satisfied with the effectiveness of therapy.

Meta-analysis refers to

a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different studies.

Psychopharmacology involves the study of how:

drugs affect mind and behavior.

Antipsychotic drugs have proved helpful in the treatment of

schizophrenia.

SSRIs are prescribed to

elevate arousal and mood.

Lithium is often an effective ________ drug.

mood-stabilizing

Surgically cutting the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain is called

a lobotomy.

The tendency for observers to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal dispositions on another's behavior is called

the fundamental attribution error.

Carol is restless during class because her teacher's distressed facial expressions lead her to believe that he dislikes teaching. The teacher, on the other hand, is distressed because he sees Carol's restlessness as an indication that she lacks any motivation to learn. At this point, both student and teacher should be informed of the dangers of

the fundamental attribution error.

Central route persuasion is most likely when people

are naturally analytical.

The foot-in-the-door phenomenon refers to the tendency to

comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request.

The tendency for initial compliance with a small request to facilitate subsequent compliance with a larger request is known as the

foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

Philip Zimbardo devised a simulated prison and randomly assigned college students to serve as prisoners or guards. This experiment best illustrated the impact of

role-playing on attitudes

The discomfort we feel when two thoughts are inconsistent is called

cognitive dissonance.

Fernando's favorable attitude toward capital punishment began to change when he was asked to offer arguments opposing it in a class debate. His attitude change is best explained by ________ theory.

cognitive dissonance

Adjusting one's behavior or thinking toward a group standard is called

conformity.

Normative social influence results from peoples' desire to

gain social approval.

Conformity resulting from the acceptance of others' opinions about reality is said to be a response to

informational social influence.

In all of Milgram's obedience experiments, participants were deceived about

the amount of shock the victim actually received.

The Milgram obedience experiments were controversial because the

"teachers" were deceived and frequently subjected to stress.

Social facilitation is most likely to occur in the performance of ________ tasks.

simple

The enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through group discussion is called

group polarization.

Which of the following comments is most likely to be made by the leader of a group characterized by groupthink?

"We have been united on matters in the past and I hope that will continue."

An unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members is called

prejudice.

Which of the following describes a stereotype?

Robin is convinced that university professors are usually impractical and forgetful.

Prejudice is a(n) ________; discrimination is a(n) ________

attitude; behavior

Placing people into groups based on the arbitrary outcome of a coin toss leads people to show favoritism to their own group when dividing any rewards. This best illustrates

ingroup bias.

Following 9/11, some outraged people lashed out at innocent Arab-Americans. This venting of hostility can best be explained in terms of

scapegoat theory.

Which of the following persons is most clearly acting aggressively?

a child who tries to hit another child with a rock

The frustration-aggression principle suggests that anger results when

an attempt to achieve some goal is blocked.

The mere exposure effect most directly contributes to the positive relationship between ________ and liking.

proximity

People with more symmetrical faces are perceived as more

attractive.

Olivia, a 17-year-old high school student, is quiet, relaxed, reflective, and politically liberal. Research suggests that she would most likely become a good friend of

Philip, who is reflective and quiet.

Altruism is best described as

behaving unselfishly to enhance the welfare of others.

The bystander effect refers to the tendency for an observer of an emergency to withhold aid if the

emergency is being observed by a number of other people.

A situation in which the individual pursuit of self-interest leads to collective destruction is known as

a social trap.

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