a major change in European thought, starting in the mid-1500s, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs.
said that Ptolemy was wrong and that the Earth revolves around the sun in a circular motion. Heliocentric Theory
Based on the belief that the sun is the center of the universe
Scientist who built the first telescope and proved that planets and moons move. Persecuted for supporting Copernicus' ideas
English mathematician and scientist who invented differential calculus and formulated the theory of universal gravitation, a theory about the nature of light, and three laws of motion. His treatise on gravitation, presented in Principia Mathematica (1687), was supposedly inspired by the sight of a falling apple.
A research method whereby a problem is identified, a hypothesis stated, and hypothesis is tested
(1596-1650) Deductive thinker whose famous saying "cogito, ergo sum" ("I think, therefore I am") challenged the notion of truth as being derived from tradition and Scriptures.
a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions
The concept, as stated by John Locke that all people are born with certain rights such as life, liberty and property.
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property
Baron de Montesquieu
wrote The Spirit of the Laws : developed the idea of the separation of powers into three branches of government
French philosopher and writer whose works epitomize the Age of Enlightenment, often attacking injustice and intolerance
French philosopher from 1712-1778 who believed that people are naturally good, but are corrupted by society
Absolute ruler who used his or her power to bring about political and social change
This was the ruler of the Habsburgs that controlled the Catholic Church closely, granted religious toleration and civic rights to Protestants and Jews, and abolished serfdom
Catherine the Great
This was the empress of Russia who continued Peter's goal to Westernizing Russia, created a new law code, and greatly expanded Russia
The Social Contract
written by Rousseau stating that the government officials cannot rule without the consent of the people