Motivation is best understood as a state that
A) reduces a drive.
B) aims at satisfying a biological need.
C) energizes an organism to act.
D) energizes and directs behavior.
Few human behaviors are rigidly patterned enough to qualify as
Mary loves hang-gliding. It would be most difficult to explain Mary's behavior according to
B) achievement motivation.
C) drive-reduction theory.
D) Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
Which of the following is a difference between a drive and a need?
A) Needs are learned; drives are inherited.
B) Needs are physiological states; drives are psychological states.
C) Drives are generally stronger than needs.
D) Needs are generally stronger than drives.
Instinct theory and drive-reduction theory both emphasize ________ factors in motivation.
One problem with the idea of motivation as drive reduction is that
A) because some motivated behaviors do not seem to be based on physiological needs, they cannot be explained in terms of drive reduction.
B) it fails to explain any human motivation.
C) it cannot account for homeostasis.
D) it does not explain the hunger drive.
Homeostasis refers to
A) the tendency to maintain a steady internal state.
B) the tendency to seek external incentives for behavior.
C) the setting of the body's "weight thermostat."
D) a theory of the development of sexual orientation.
Which of the following is inconsistent with the drive-reduction theory of motivation?
A) When body temperature drops below 98.6° Fahrenheit, blood vessels constrict to conserve warmth.
B) A person is driven to seek a drink when his or her cellular water level drops below its optimum point.
C) Monkeys will work puzzles even if not given a food reward.
D) A person becomes hungry when body weight falls below its biological set point.
Which of the following is NOT an example of homeostasis?
A) perspiring in order to restore normal body temperature
B) feeling hungry and eating to restore the level of blood glucose to normal
C) feeling hungry at the sight of an appetizing food
D) All of these are examples of homeostasis.
For two weeks, Orlando has been on a hunger strike in protest of his country's involvement in what he perceives as an immoral war. Orlando's willingness to starve himself in order to make a political statement conflicts with the theory of motivation advanced by
According to Maslow's theory
A) the most basic motives are based on physiological needs.
B) needs are satisfied in a specified order.
C) the highest motives relate to self-transcendence.
D) all of these statements are true.
Beginning with the most basic needs, which of the following represents the correct sequence of needs in the hierarchy described by Maslow?
A) safety; physiological; esteem; belongingness and love; self-actualization and transcendence
B) safety; physiological; belongingness and love; esteem; self-actualization and transcendence
C) physiological; safety; esteem; belongingness and love; self-actualization and transcendence
D) physiological; safety; belongingness and love; esteem; self-actualization and transcendence
In his study of men on a semistarvation diet, Keys found that
A) the metabolic rate of the men increased.
B) the men eventually lost interest in food.
C) the men became obsessed with food.
D) the men's behavior directly contradicted predictions made by Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
Increases in insulin will
A) lower blood sugar and trigger hunger.
B) raise blood sugar and trigger hunger.
C) lower blood sugar and trigger satiety.
D) raise blood sugar and trigger satiety.
Electrical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus will cause an animal to
A) begin eating.
B) stop eating.
C) become obese.
D) begin copulating.
The brain area that when stimulated suppresses eating is the
A) lateral hypothalamus.
B) ventromedial hypothalamus.
C) lateral thalamus.
D) ventromedial thalamus.
In animals, destruction of the lateral hypothalamus results in ________, whereas destruction of the ventromedial hypothalamus results in ________.
A) overeating; loss of hunger
B) loss of hunger; overeating
C) an elevated set point; a lowered set point
D) increased thirst; loss of thirst
Two rats have escaped from their cages in the neurophysiology lab. The technician needs your help in returning them to their proper cages. One rat is grossly overweight; the other is severely underweight. You confidently state that the overweight rat goes in the "________-destruction" cage, while the underweight rat goes in the "________-destruction" cage.
A) hippocampus; amygdala
B) amygdala; hippocampus
C) lateral hypothalamus; ventromedial hypothalamus
D) ventromedial hypothalamus; lateral hypothalamus
I am an appetite-suppressing hormone produced in the digestive tract. Who am I?
I am a protein produced by fat cells and monitored by the hypothalamus. When in abundance, I cause the brain to increase metabolism. What am I?
Which of the following influences on hunger motivation does NOT belong with the others?
A) set/settling point
B) attraction to sweet and salty tastes
C) reduced production of ghrelin after stomach bypass surgery
D) memory of time elapsed since your last meal
Ali's parents have tried hard to minimize their son's exposure to sweet, fattening foods. If Ali has the occasion to taste sweet foods in the future, which of the following is likely?
A) He will have a strong aversion to such foods.
B) He will have a neutral reaction to sweet foods.
C) He will display a preference for sweet tastes.
D) It is impossible to predict Ali's reaction.
Randy, who has been under a lot of stress lately, has intense cravings for sugary junk foods, which tend to make him feel more relaxed. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for his craving?
A) Randy feels that he deserves to pamper himself with sweets because of the stress he is under.
B) The extra sugar gives Randy the energy he needs to cope with the demands of daily life.
C) Carbohydrates boost levels of serotonin, which has a calming effect.
D) The extra sugar tends to lower blood insulin level, which promotes relaxation.
The text suggests that a neophobia for unfamiliar tastes
A) is more common in children than in adults.
B) protected our ancestors from potentially toxic substances.
C) may be an early warning sign of an eating disorder.
D) only grows stronger with repeated exposure to those tastes.
One shortcoming of the instinct theory of motivation is that it
A) places too much emphasis on environmental factors.
B) focuses on cognitive aspects of motivation.
C) applies only to animal behavior.
D) does not explain human behaviors; it simply names them.
(Close-Up) Kathy has been undergoing treatment for bulimia. There is an above-average probability that one or more members of Kathy's family have a problem with
A) high achievement.
D) all of these characteristics.
(Close-Up) Which of the following is NOT typical of both anorexia and bulimia?
A) far more frequent occurrence in women than in men
B) preoccupation with food and fear of being overweight
C) weight significantly and noticeably outside normal ranges
D) low self-esteem and feelings of depression
(Close-Up) Of the following individuals, who might be most prone to developing an eating disorder?
A) Jason, an adolescent boy who is somewhat overweight and is unpopular with his peers
B) Jennifer, a teenage girl who has a poor self-image and a fear of not being able to live up to her parents' high standards
C) Susan, a 35-year-old woman who is a "workaholic" and devotes most of her energies to her high-pressured career
D) Bill, a 40-year-old man who has had problems with alcoholism and is seriously depressed after losing his job of 20 years
(Close-Up) Which of the following is true of bulimia nervosa?
A) It involves bingeing and purging.
B) Sufferers are usually females from competitive families.
C) It results in dramatic weight loss.
D) Victims set perfectionist standards for themselves.
(Close-Up) Women in ________ rate their body ideals closest to their actual shape.
A) Western cultures
B) countries such as Africa, where thinness can signal poverty,
C) countries such as India, where thinness is not idealized,
D) Australia, New Zealand, and England
(Close-Up) Although the cause of eating disorders is still unknown, proposed explanations focus on all the following EXCEPT
A) metabolic factors.
B) genetic factors.
C) family background factors.
D) cultural factors.
(Close-Up) Which of the following is true concerning eating disorders?
A) Genetic factors may influence susceptibility.
B) Cultural pressures for thinness strongly influence teenage girls.
C) Family background is a significant factor.
D) All of these statements are true.
(Close-Up) The tendency to overeat when food is plentiful
A) is a recent phenomenon that is associated with the luxury of having ample food.
B) emerged in our prehistoric ancestors as an adaptive response to alternating periods of feast and famine.
C) is greater in developed, than in developing, societies.
D) is stronger in women than in men.
Research on obesity indicates that
A) pound for pound, fat tissue requires more calories to maintain than lean tissue.
B) once fat cells are acquired they are never lost, no matter how rigorously one diets.
C) one pound of weight is lost for every 3500-calorie reduction in diet.
D) when weight drops below the set point, hunger and metabolism also decrease.
The number of fat cells a person has is influenced by
A) genetic predisposition.
B) childhood eating patterns.
C) adulthood eating patterns.
D) all of these factors.
Which of the following is NOT necessarily a reason that obese people have trouble losing weight?
A) Fat tissue has a lower metabolic rate than lean tissue.
B) Once a person has lost weight, it takes fewer calories to maintain his or her current weight.
C) The tendency toward obesity may be genetically based.
D) Obese people tend to lack willpower.
Lucille has been sticking to a strict diet but can't seem to lose weight. What is the most likely explanation for her difficulty?
A) Her body has a very low set point.
B) Her pre-diet weight was near her body's set point.
C) Her weight problem is actually caused by an underlying eating disorder.
D) Lucille is influenced primarily by external factors.
After an initial rapid weight loss, a person on a diet loses weight much more slowly. This slowdown occurs because
A) most of the initial weight loss is simply water.
B) when a person diets, metabolism decreases.
C) people begin to "cheat" on their diets.
D) insulin levels tend to increase with reduced food intake.
Kenny and his brother have nearly identical eating and exercise habits, yet Kenny is obese and his brother is very thin. The MOST LIKELY explanation for the difference in their body weights is that they differ in
A) their bone structure.
B) amygdala activity.
C) their set points and their metabolic rates.
D) their differing exposure to carbohydrate-laden foods.
Research on genetic influences on obesity reveals that
A) the body weights of adoptees correlate with that of their biological parents.
B) the body weights of adoptees correlate with that of their adoptive parents.
C) identical twins usually have very different body weights.
D) the body weights of identical twin women are more similar than those of identical twin men.
Compared with her counterparts of 30 years ago, a North American adult today is likely to
A) eat a higher-fat, higher-sugar diet.
B) eat fewer calories a day.
C) eat fewer meals in fast-food restaurants.
D) be more resistant to developing diabetes.
(Close-Up) Which of the following would be the worst piece of advice to offer to someone trying to lose weight?
A) "In order to treat yourself to one 'normal' meal each day, eat very little until the evening meal."
B) "Reduce your consumption of saturated fats."
C) "Boost your metabolism by exercising regularly."
D) "Without increasing total caloric intake, increase the relative proportion of carbohydrates in your diet."
The correct order of the stages of Masters and Johnson's sexual response cycle is
A) plateau; excitement; orgasm; resolution.
B) excitement; plateau; orgasm; resolution.
C) excitement; orgasm; resolution; refractory.
D) plateau; excitement; orgasm; refractory.
According to Masters and Johnson, the sexual response of males is most likely to differ from that of females during
A) the excitement phase.
B) the plateau phase.
D) the resolution phase.
Castration of male rats results in
A) reduced testosterone and sexual interest.
B) reduced testosterone, but no change in sexual interest.
C) reduced estradiol and sexual interest.
D) reduced estradiol, but no change in sexual interest.
Hunger and sexual motivation are alike in that both are influenced by
A) internal physiological factors.
B) external and imagined stimuli.
C) cultural expectations.
D) all of these factors.
While viewing erotica, men and women differ in the activity levels of which brain area?
A) anterior cingulate cortex
C) occipital lobe
D) temporal lobe
Which of the following was NOT identified as a contributing factor in the high rate of unprotected sex among adolescents?
A) alcohol use
C) mass media sexual norms
Which of the following teens is most likely to delay the initiation of sex?
A) Jack, who has below-average intelligence
B) Jason, who is not religiously active
C) Ron, who regularly volunteers his time in community service
D) It is impossible to predict.
Sexual orientation refers to
A) a person's tendency to display behaviors typical of males or females.
B) a person's sense of identity as a male or female.
C) a person's enduring sexual attraction toward members of a particular gender.
D) all of these.
Which of the following is NOT true regarding homosexuality?
A) Gays and lesbians suffer elevated levels of depression.
B) Most people report never having a homosexual experience.
C) about 3 or 4 percent of men are exclusively homosexual.
D) Most homosexual people do not think of themselves as gay or lesbian until later in their teens or twenties.
Which of the following is NOT true regarding sexual orientation?
A) Sexual orientation is neither willfully chosen nor willfully changed.
B) Some homosexuals struggle with their sexual orientation.
C) Men's sexual orientation is potentially more fluid and changeable than women's.
D) Women, regardless of sexual orientation, respond to both female and male erotic stimuli.
Summarizing his presentation on the origins of homosexuality, Dennis explains that the fraternal birth-order effect refers to the fact that
A) men who have younger brothers are somewhat more likely to be gay.
B) men who have older brothers are somewhat more likely to be gay.
C) women with older sisters are somewhat more likely to be gay.
D) women with younger sisters are somewhat more likely to be gay.
Which of the following statements concerning homosexuality is true?
A) Homosexuals have abnormal hormone levels.
B) As children, most homosexuals were molested by an adult homosexual.
C) Homosexuals had a domineering opposite-sex parent.
D) Research indicates that sexual orientation may be at least partly physiological.
Some scientific evidence makes a preliminary link between homosexuality and
A) late sexual maturation.
B) the age of an individual's first erotic experience.
C) atypical prenatal hormones.
D) early problems in relationships with parents.
Exposure of a fetus to the hormones typical of females between ________ and ________ months after conception may predispose the developing human to become attracted to males.
A) 1; 3
B) 2; 5
C) 4; 7
D) 6; 9
It has been said that the body's major sex organ is the brain. With regard to sex education
A) transmission of value-free information about the wide range of sexual behaviors should be the primary focus of the educator.
B) transmission of technical knowledge about the biological act should be the classroom focus, free from the personal values and attitudes of researchers, teachers, and students.
C) the home, not the school, should be the focus of all instruction about reproductive behavior.
D) people's attitudes, values, and morals cannot be separated from the biological aspects of sexuality.
Summarizing her report on the need to belong, Rolanda states that
A) "Cooperation among our ancestors was uncommon."
B) "Social bonding is not in our nature; it is a learned human trait."
C) "Because bonding with others increased our ancestors' success at reproduction and survival, it became part of our biological nature."
D) "Our male ancestors were more likely to bond than were females."