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9th Grade World History SOL Review

The Hellenic civilization took place in what country?

Greece

How did the Greeks spread the Hellenic culture?

trade and conquest

What sea is located east of Greece?

Aegean Sea

What sea is located south of Greece?

Med. Sea

What strait is the entrance to the Black Sea?

Bosporus

What area was located north of Greece and was the home of Alexander the Great?

Macedonia

Why was agriculture limited in ancient Greece?

Hilly, mountainous terrain

To trade one good for another is to do what?

barther

What geographical feature isolated Greek city-states?

mountains and seas

Why did the Greeks colonize outside Greece?

more farm land

The Greeks practiced what kind of religion?

polytheism

What did Artemis represent?

the Hunt

What did Apollo represent

music and sun

What Greek city-state had an oligarchy?

Sparta

What did Athena represent?

wisdom

What did Hera represent?

marraige

What did Aphrodite represent?

love

Greeks practiced barter, but later changed over to what?

money

Who were Greek citizens?

free men

What responsibilities did Greek citizens have?

pay taxes, serve in military, vote

What city-state had a direct democracy?

Athens

Which wars united Athens and Sparta against an external enemy?

Persian

What were the 2 main city-states of Greece?

Athens and Sparta

Which Greek city-state had a militaristic and aggressive society?

Sparta

What was the alliance headed by Athens?

Delian League

Name 2 battles of the Persian Wars

Marathon, Salamis, Thermopylae

A result of the Persian War was the control of what sea?

Aegean Sea

What war was caused by competition between Athens and Sparta for control of the Greek world?

Peloponnesian

Who was Pericles?

leader of Athens during Golden Age

Who rebuilt Athens after the Persian Wars?

Pericles

What building was rebuilt after the Persian Wars?

Parthenon

What kind of columns are on the Parthenon?

doric

What were the 3 types of Greek columns?

doric, ionian, corinthian

What war made it easier for the Macedoinians to conquer Greece?

Peloponnesian

Who developed a theory about right triangles?

pythagoras

What Macedonian conquered most of Greece?

Phillip II or Alexander

How was Hellenistic culture spread?

conquest

Whoc onquered the Persian Empire and most of the ancient world?

Alexander the Great

What was Hellenistic culture?

Greek, Persian

What protected Italy from northern invaders?

Aphs Mountains

What protected Italy on all other sides?

Med. Sea

What type of religion did Rome follow?

polytheistic

Rome mythology was based on what?

greek

What was the highest Roman social class and who was in it?

Particians, richest and powerful

The majority of Rome's population was what class?

plebians

Who were forced by conquest to become servants to the Romans?

slaves

Who held citizenship in Rome?

patricians and plebians

What kind of democracy did Rome have?

representative

What were the Twelve Tables?

Roman laws placed in middle of forum

The Punic Wars were between whom?

Carthage and Rome

At the end of the Punic Wars, Rome controlled what sea?

Med. Sea

Name 3 causes for the decline of the Roman republic.

1. Rise of private armies 2. civil wars 3. J. Caesar

Who was in the First Triumvirate?

Julius Caesar, Pompey, Crassus

What happened to Julius Caesar?

killed by senate

Who was the first emperor of Rome?

Octavian/Augustus Caesar

What was the Pax Romana?

200 years of peace established by A. Caesar

What emporer established the Pax Romana?

Augustus Caesar

What is the civil service?

run the day to day stuff

What kind of religion was Christianity?

monotheistic

Name 3 basic beliefs of Christianity.

Jesus is the messiah, son of God, 1 god

What was the goal of the Apostles?

to spread Christianity

What were the Apostles?

12 closest disciples

What was the main unifying force in western Europe after the fall of Rome?

Catholic Church

Who was Ptolemy?

astonomer

What language did they speak in Rome?

latin

Who wrote the Aeneid?

Virgil

Who built the Roman capital in Byzantium?

Constantine

Who did the Roman capital?

Constantinople

Name 3 reasons for the decline and fall of Rome.

Germanic invastions, economic decline/inflation, moral decay

What did the Eastern Roman Empire become?

Byzantine Empire

Who invaded the Roman Empire?

dramatic invasions

Name 2 reasons Constantinople became the capital of the Roman Empire.

madmade images of god, icons

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