_____ and ______ produce an extremely high number of responses.
An example of the _________ approach to trait theory is Jung's designation of introversion/extroversion traits.
The preoperational stage is when children show __________.
"The ________ stage is when we only perceive and interpret the world with our senses no ""thinking"" is going on."
________ is the concept that toddlers develop which allows them to lie.
Theory of mind
________ is when we fit new information into previous concepts without changing them.
The _________ is when children first develop the concept of conservation.
The preoperational is when children first develop the concept of _________.
The __________ stage is when children show egocentrism.
An example of this is when children think that you can see the TV as well as they can even though they're in front of it.
A high ______ score indicates that the baby does not need assistance.
The _________ stage is when children develop theory of mind.
The _______ stage is when we first develop object permanence.
__________ is when children have no idea that others perceive different sensations than they do.
________ is the idea that volume remains the same despite changes in shape.
"_________ were originally applied because it was thought babies needed them to ""grow properly"""
___________ is when we try to fit new information into our previous concepts and find that we have to create a new category to fit it into.
Piaget believed that children learn by _________ and ________ information
________ is the concept that toddlers develop which allows them to understand that other people have minds just like their own.
Theory of mind
___________ is the idea that something exists when we no longer perceive it.
The sensorimotor stage is when first develop _________.
_________ is an adolescent's idea that there is always someone watching and judging their actions.
________ is an adolescent's idea that their own lives are vastly important and even mythic.
__________ is an adolescent's idea that they are immune to risk.
_________ is the picking of an identity and sticking to it.
_______ is the individual's confrontation with new ideas and experiences which help the individual decide their identity.
__________ is the result of struggle without commitment (yet). This is the condition of most college students.
__________ is the result of struggle and commitment.
__________ is the result of commitment but no struggle for example when someone else decides your career.
__________ is the result of no struggle or commitment living with your mom.
___________ are the reproductive organs and external genitalia that mature during puberty.
Primary sex characteristics
________ is the period of sexual maturation.
________ is a woman's first period.
_____________ are the nonreproductive traits (body hair deeper voice wider hips) that develop during puberty.
Secondary sex characteristics
________ is a man's first ejaculation.
_________ is period between the beginning of the start of sexual maturity to when we are considered adults by society.
_______ is when a woman's menstrual cycle ends usually around age 50
A _________ produces only an orienting response.
____________ is when the conditioned response isn't evoked by a stimulus similar to the conditioned stimulus.
When a neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus the neutral stimulus becomes a ___________
An unconditioned stimulus always produces an _________.
An ________ is when you simply notice something without reacting to it in any other way.
___________ is when a stimulus similar but not the same as the conditioned stimulus still evokes the same conditioned response.
An ______________ always produces an unconditioned response.
_________ is any change in an organism's behavior that results from experience.
________ is when the conditioned response gradually declines because the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus are no longer associated.
Once an unconditioned response is associated with a conditioned stimulus it becomes a ___________.
_________ is the initial learning of an association between the neutral stimulus and unconditioned stimulus.
Unconditioned responses are usually ___________ responses such as blinking or an increase in heart rate.
sympathetic nervous system
A neutral stimulus produces only an _________.
_______ are usually sympathetic nervous system responses such as blinking or an increase in heart rate.
A ________ schedule is when reinforcement is given after a fixed number of responses are produced.
Removing a pleasant stimulus is a ___________
__________ schedules produce a post-reinforcement pause.
3. Nothing will change."
Law of effect.
________ is the reinforcement of behaviors gradually closer to but not yet the same as the desired behavior.
A _______ schedule is when a reinforcement is given only at certain equally spaced times for a response or responses.
Adding an aversive stimulus is a ___________
A _______ schedule is when a reinforcement is given only at certain varying times for a response or responses.
Adding a pleasant stimulus is a ___________
A _________ is the time when there are no responses because reinforcement will not be offered again for a fixed amount of time.
A ________ schedule is when reinforcement is given after a random number of reponses are produced.
Removing an aversive stimulus is a ___________
The ________ is how an individual believes their behavior and its results are determined whether by luck pluck or God.
locus of control
What is Rotter's formula?
Behavior potential = f(expectancy & reinforcement value)
__________ is the idea that individuals determine their environment by their behavior but the environment also determines our behavior.
Behavior potential = f(expectancy & reinforcement value)"
Freud viewed personality as a system of ________
The basic instincts are aimed towards tension reduction which is pleasurable for the __.
Freud's metaphor for his view of the mind was an iceberg with _______ above the surface and ________ and ________ below it.
conscious preconscious unconscious
An _________ is when there is tension between the id ego and superego.
______ are the results of the ego's attempts to satisfy the id indirectly.
_____ is the ultimate tension reduction for the Id.
The two ________ are libido and thanatos
_________ is a projective technique which measures intrapsychic conflict by timing the gap between a patient's hearing of a word and his saying of a random related word.
The ___________ is a projective test that uses a series of ambiguous pictures which the patient must describe in order to reveal the unconscious.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
The ____ or _____ model treats human emotions as energies which can be transformed but never destroyed.
A _________ uses ambiguous stimuli to reveal intrapsychic conflicts.
The two basic instincts are _______ and _________.
_______ is the idea that every action we make is the result of the workings of our mind. A cigar is never just a cigar.
The basic instincts are aimed towards ________ which is pleasurable for the Id.
The _____ includes everything not within our awareness but still retrievable.
_______ is the life instinct. Ex: sex exercise and art.
The _________ is a projective test in which the subject reveals his unconscious desires by interpreting random shapes.
Rosrchach inkblot test
_______ is the death instinct. Ex: agression suicide horror movies
_________ arise from the fact that people control their basic instincts by pushing them below the conscious level.
The _____ includes everything not within our awareness and irretrievable through conventional methods.
The _____ includes everything within our current awareness.
Defense mechanism ex: getting into an argument with your wife because you had a bad day at work.
________ is when we attribute our own unacceptable id impulses to someone else.
Defense mechanism ex: if you unconsciously love someone that you act like you hate.
"_______ is a defense mechanism in which one transfers an id impulse from one person to another. ""Taking it out"" on the wrong person."
_______ is a defense mechanism in which the ego finds a way to express an id instinct in a way that satisfies the superego.
Defense mechanisms arise from the actions of ______
_______ arises from the fact that opposite emotions are equally satisfying to the id.
Defense mechanism ex: becoming a surgeon if you like to cut people.
_______ is the highest functioning most productive defense mechanism.
Defense mechanism ex. You unconsciously want to steal something so you think your brother is a thief.
________ is a defense mechanisms in which we don't accept something that is obviously true usually about ourselves.
_______ is a defense mechanism in which the opposite emotion that is actually felt is expressed.
The ________ and _____ complexes result from fixations in the phallic stage.
The _____ stage occurs during potty training.
The _______ stage is when boys learn to imitate their fathers in order to subvert them.
The oedipus and electra complexes result from fixations in the ______ stage.
The _____ stage is when the superego forms and a person first experiences shame.
The ____ stage is when most needs are satisfied by sucking or crying.
The _____ stage occurs before the superego has formed.
________ are periods of one's life in which the majority of tension reduction for the id is satified by particular erogenous zones of the body.
_______ occur when you receive too much or too little tension reduction during a particular psychosexual stage.
The _____ stage is when the mother is the main source of tension reduction and the father becomes a threat.
The first three psychosexual stages are....
Oral anal phallic
A fixation in the anal stage can lead to __________ or _________.
anal retentiveness (over cleanliness) anal expulsiveness (messiness)
A fixation in the oral stage can result in __________ (3 things)
gumchewing thumbsucking nailbiting
The Myers-Briggs test is an example of ____ theory.
If you are _____ on the T-F dichotomy you prefer to use logic and analysis when making decisions and you believe only equals should be treated equally.
The __________ dichotomy doesn't have to do with how social you are but rather under what social conditions you feel the most energized.
_____ theory indicates that there is a continuum of traits you can be 60% extroverted and 40% introverted.
If you are ________ on the J-P dichotomy you are spontaneous and flexible you like surprises and you think of routines as limiting.
The __________ dichotomy indicates where one's source of energy comes from.
If you are ____ on the S-N dichotomy you like to use what you can observe and trust your own experience and the facts you've learned.
If you are ________ on the J-P dichotomy you like to have your day well scheduled ahead of time and you prefer routine.
The _____ dichotomy indicates how you make decisions.
If you are ____ on the S-N dichotomy you like to follow hunches and you prefer theory to practice.
_____ theory indicates that there is no continuum of type you are either classified as one or another.
The ________ dichotomy indicates how you absorb information by concrete facts or general concepts.
The _______ dichotomy indicates lifestyle.
If you are _____ on the T-F dichotomy you prefer to use your personal values to make decisions to think about individuals and your concept of fairness is that everyone should be treated individually.
An ________ test uses large-scale testing to determine what personality traits are indicated by differing answers to random questions.
In the _______ approach to trait theory arbitrary theories of personality are used to determine what traits exist.
The _______ approach to trait theory uses an analysis of the words describing personality in natural language to reveal traits.
The __________ is an empirically derived personality test.
Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI)
In the _______ approach to trait theory more common words describe more important traits.
_____ theory indicates that people are simply different organizations of similar characteristics.
The _________ trait on the Big Five indicates whether you are naturally trusting and goodnatured or cynical and suspicious.
The _________ trait on the Big Five indicates whether you prefer to be alone or with others.
In the ________ trait theory the individual is indicated to be positive or negative for a trait on a linear continuum.
The Big Five uses a _________ approach to coming up with traits.
The _________ trait on the Big Five indicates whether you are organized and persistent or aimless and careless.
The _________ trait on the Big Five indicates whether you prefer to explore the unfamiliar or whether you are conventional and have narrow interests.
The _________ trait on the Big Five indicates whether you are extremely emotion and nervous or calm relaxed and self-satisfied.
__________ is when a zygote implants inside of the fallopian tube instead of the uterus.
The _______ is the gap between the uterus and the vagina.
_______ are substances that at certain times and in certain amounts harm the prenatal infant.
________ is the reflex where you internally close off your lungs when you're underwater.
________ is the reflex where you naturally make stroking motions if placed in water.
________ is the reflex where you grasp your hands if your palm is touched.
________ is the reflex where you suck anything in or near your mouth.
________ is the reflex where you reach your arms out and then back in if you're startled.
________ is the reflex where you turn your head if your cheek is touched.