Laboratory Terminology

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Flash Cards for Medical Laboratory Prodedures and Terminology.

Agglutination

a clumping of bacteria or red cells when held together by antibodies (agglutinins)

Isotonic

(used of solutions) having the same or equal osmotic pressure

Leukocytosis

an abnormal increase in the number of white blood cells in the blood as a result of infection (as in leukemia)

Leukopenia

abnormally low WBC count. Usually below 4500mm3

Polycythemia

an abnormal increase in the number of red cells in the blood due to excess production of these cells by the bone marrow

Reticulocyte

An immature red blood cell which retains traces of endoplasmic reticula

Erythrocytosis

increase in the number of red blood cells, aka polycycythemia (pathologic)

Pseudoagglutination

the clumping together of red blood cells as in the formation of rouleaux but differing from true agglutination in that the clumped cells can be dispersed by shaking

Nucleated Red Blood Cell

a red blood cell that contains a nucleus. It resembles a white blood cell under low-power magnification and may inflate the white blood cell count

Rouleaux

a clump of red blood cells that appear to be stacked like a roll of coins

Anoxia

lack of oxygen

Aplastic Anemia

deficient RBC development due to bonemarrow disorder.

Diurnal

daily variation

Epinephrine

adrenaline

Erythemia

polycythemia vera; a chronic usually fatal disease of the bone marrow that results in greatly elevated red blood cell counts

Neoplasm

tumor

Pernicious Anemia

progressive anemia that results from a lack of intrinsic factor essential for the absorption of vitamin B12

Relative Polycythemia

increase in RBC with decrease in volume of plasma. Dehydration, fever/shock/diarrhea.

Hemoglobin Test

A blood test measured in g/dL. Hgb test

Drabkin's reagent

Converts hemoglobin into cyanmethemoglobin

Erythropoiesis

Red blood cell formation

Hematocrit

the ratio of the volume occupied by packed red blood cells

Hemoglobin

an oxygen-carrying molecule

Hemoglobinopathy

a disease caused by abnormal hemoglobin

Homozygous

having two copies of the same gene

Sahli pipette

measures blood for a hemoglobin test

Buffy Coat

a thin whitish-tan colored layer of white blood cells and platelets than lie between a top layer of plasma and red blood cells

Stromatolytic agent

a compound that helps break down the spongy protoplasmic framework of cells such as RBC

Microhematocrit

a method of determining the hematocrit. It uses just two or three drops of blood collected in a capillary tube

Hemoglobin C

an abnormal hemoglobin that is relatively common in African Americans. It causes chronic hemolytic anemia, splenomegaly, arthralgia, and abdominal pain

Hemoglobin S

sickle cell hemoglobin

Hemolytic anemia

The anemia that is due to the breakdown of Red Blood Cells

Hemoglobin E

an abnormal hemoglobin that is prevelant in India, Southeast Asia, and Southeast Asian refugees in the US. It causes a mild form of hemolytic anemia

Complete Blood Count (CBC)

A battery of hematological tests often requisitioned in POL's

Erythropoietin

hormone released by the kidneys and is involved in production of red blood cells

Normal Hemoglobin concentration value for an Adult Male

Between 14-17 g/dL

Normal Hematocrit value for an Adult Male

Between 42-52%

Normal Hemoglobin concentration for an Adult Female

Beween 12.5 - 15 g/dL

Normal Hematocrit value for an Adult Female

Between 36 - 46%

Normal Hemoglobin concentration value for a newborn

Between 17- 23 g/dL

Normal Hematocrit value for a newborn

Between 50 - 62%

How to calculate a patient's Hemoglobin concentration using values for a known standard

Concentration of hemoglobin standard (Cs). Au is the absorbance of the patients sample and As is the absorbance of the standard. Both read from the spectrophotometer.

Structure of hemoglobin molecule

Consists of 4 polypeptide chains called globins, each with an iron containing heme group attached

At what age would a person have a normal hematocrit reading of 60%

Newborn

At what age would a person have a normal hematocrit of 50%

Adult Male

How is a hematocrit expressed

As a percentage of the total volume of whole blood in the sample

What disease causes a low hemoglobin concentration and a normal hematocrit?

Iron-deficiency anemia because iron is needed of hemoglobin formation

What is the function of hemoglobin?

To transport oxygen to the tissues from the lungs

What tests are usually included in a CBC?

Hgb concentration, hematocrit, WBC count, differential WBC count, RBC count, and sometimes erythrocyte indices

How is a specific-gravity test for hemoglobin performed?

By adding a drop of blood to a copper sulfate solution of known density and determining if the blood is more or less dense than the solution and observing movement

How do sickle-cell hemoglobin homozygous individuals differ from heterozygous individuals?

Heterozygous individuals have normal hemoglobin in addition to sickle-cell hemoglobin and normally don't show signs of anemia. Sickle-cell hemoglobin gene only produce sickle-cell hemoglobin.

What is the age of a patient who has a normal hemoglobin concentration of 20 g/dL?

Newborn

Anticoagulant

EDTA, a drug that prevents clotting of the blood

EDTA

ethyenediamnetetraacetic acid

Hemolysis

breakdown of the red blood cells

Icteric

jaundiced

Lipemic

having a high fat level

Platelet

involved in clotting

Serum

the liquid part of clotted blood

microtainer

capillary blood collector

vacutainer

used for venipuncture

What are capillaries?

Small blood vessels throughout the body that connect the smaller arteries to the smaller veins

Order of draw

1 yellow, 2 light blue, 3 red, 4 red/gray: SST: tiger striped, 5 light green, 6 lavender, 7 pale yellow, 8 light gray

Antecubital

Area in front of the elbow

Capillary

smallest blood vessel; connects arteries and veins

Hematology

the study of blood and blood-forming tissues, and coagulation factors, and the disorders associated with them

Hematoma

a subcutaneeus mass of blood at a venipuncture site

Autolet

a semiautomatic device with a disposable lancet for capillary puncture

Blood chemistry

the quantitative analysis of the chemical composition of blood

Plasma

the liquid part of blood

Hemoconcentration

increased concentration of blood cells due to a decrease in plasma volume - tourniquet too tight

Venipuncture

puncture of a vein to remove blood, instill a medication, or start an intravenous infusion

Fibrinogen

Plasma protein that is converted to fibrin in the clotting process

Heparin

prevents blood clotting

Universal Precautions

steps taken to prevent the spread of disease by treating all human blood and certain body fluids as if they contained HIV, HBV, and other pathogens

Anisocytosis

the excessive variation in size of cells, especially RBC's

Eosin

Orange/red acidic dye used to stain blood smears for microscopic examinations.

Hypersegmented

Having a nucleus with more than 5 segments, or lobes; used to describe certain neutrophils

Infectious mononucleosis

an acute infectious disease in which lymphocytes are both more numerous and larger than normal and often contain vacuoles, causing them to resembe monocytes- hence the name of the disease.

Megakaryocyte

large bone marrow cell with large or multiple nuclei. Gives rise to platelets

methylene blue

a blue alkaline dye used to stain blood smears for microscopic examination

Neutropenia

decrease below normal in the number of neutrophils in the blood, due to certain drugs, some acute infections, radiation, or certain diseases of the spleen or bone marrow.

Poikilocytosis

A condition in which many red blood cells have abnormal or multiple types of shapes

Polychromatic stain

a stain containing dyes of two or more colors, such as Wright's stain, which contains methylene blue and eosin

polymorphonuclear

having a multi-lobed nucleus; used to describe cells such as granulocytes

Quick-stain method

a method of staining blood smears in which the smear is dipped sequentially in fixative, acidic stain, and alkaline stain; also known as the 3 step method.

Wright's stain

a polychromatic stain for fixing and staining blood smears. It contains eosin and methylene blue dyes in a methyl alcohol solution

Monocytic Leukemia

a form of acute leukemia in which abnormal monocytes proliferate and invade the blood, bone marrow, and other tissues

Lymphocytic Leukemia

leukemia characterized by enlargement of lymphoid tissues and lymphocytic cells in the circulating blood

Endocarditis

the inflammation of the lining of the heart. My be associated with an increase in number of monocytes.

Granulocyte

a polymorphonuclear white blood cell that contains granules in its cytoplasm. This class includes: neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils.

basophils

a type of WBC that promotes inflammation and participates in allergic responses. Granulocyte

neutrophils

WBCs that fight against invading agents or injury. Granulocyte

eosinophils

White blood cells that are responsible for combating infection by parasites in the body. Granulocyte

Agranulocyte

type of wbc, shows no granules, will not stain any color, 2 types monocyte, lymphocyte

monocyte

an agranulocytic leukocyte that performs phagocytosis to fight infection

lymphocyte

an agranulocytic leukocyte that normally makes up a quarter of the white blood cell count but increases in the presence of infection

Normochromic

pertaining to normal concentration of hemoglobin (colour)

Hyperchromic

excessive pigmentation

Hypochromic

Pertaining to deficiency in color; decrease in hemoglobin in red blood cells.

Macrocyte

an abnormally large erythrocyte

microcyte

an abnormally small red blood cell (less than 5 microns in diameter)

Coagulation

The process of blood clotting

Prothrombin

a protein in blood plasma that is the inactive precursor of thrombin

Thrombin

Enzyme that converts fibrinogen to fibrin during coagulation

Thromboplastin

an enzyme liberated from blood platelets that converts prothrombin into thrombin as blood starts to clot

Fibrinogen

A blood protein essential to blood clotting. The conversion of fibrinogen to its active form (fibrin) is among the final steps in clot formation, and is triggered by thrombin.

Calcium

Ca

Bleeding Time

Time it takes for a small puncture wound to stop bleeding. BT

Cerebrovascular accident

damage to the brain that occurs when the blood flow to the brain is disrupted; also known as a stroke

Clotting disorder

a coagulation desease in which clots form in the blood spontaneously

Coagulation factor

factor essential to normal blood clotting contained within the blood plasma; their absence diminution or excess may lead to abnormality of clotting

Coumarin

medication taken to prevent blood clotting, called blood thinners

Embolism

a sudden obstruction or plugging up of an artery or other blood-vessel by an embolus

Hemophilia

a group of hereditary bleeding disorders in which there is a defect in clotting factors necessary for the coagulation of blood

Hemorrhagic desease

any of several diseases which excessive bleeding occurs because blood fails to clot.

Hemostasis

stoppage of bleeding

Platelet plug

an accumulation of platelets that can seal up small breaks in blood vessels; maintains the integrity of the circulatory system

Serotonin

a potent vasoconstrictor that is released by platelets adhering to a wounded blood vessel

Template method

(Ivy bleeding time) a method of testing bleeding time. Standardizes the size and depth of the incision

Thromboplastin

coagulation factor III; the immediate initiator of the blood-clotting mechanism.

Thrombus

a blood clot within the vascular system

Vasoconstriction

rapid constriction of the blood vessels to decrease blood flow to the area

Warfarin

an anticoagulant (trade name Coumadin) use to prevent and treat a thrombus or embolus. Also a rodent poison.

Factor VIII

Antihemophilic factor (AHF)

Factor I

Fibrinogen

Factor II

Prothrombin

Factor III

Thromboplastin

Factor IV

Calcium

Factor V

Labile factor (proaccelerin)

Factor VII

Serum prothrombin conversion accelerator (SPCA)

Factor IX

Plasma thromboplastin component (PTC)

Factor X

Stuart-Prower factor

Factor XI

Plasma thromboplastin antecedent (PTA)

Factor XII

Hageman factor (contract factor)

Factor XIII

Fibrin stabilizing factor

Platelet factor

Cephalin

Extrinsic Factor Pathway

vitamin b12. Blood comes into contact with traumatized tissues

Intrinsic Factor Pathway

substance that gastric glands produce to promote absorption of vitamin B12. pathway that is followed when there is damage to the blood itself

Vitamin K

helps with blood clotting and bone growth

Normal values of prothrombin time (PT)

11-13 seconds

The Ivy bleeding time (template method) uses a standardized incision made on the forearm and a blood pressure cuff inflated to?

Inflated to 40mm

What color of tube contains EDTA?

lavender top

Which color of tube does not use any additives?

Red color top

Which vein is most commonly used for venipuncture?

Median cephalic vein

Antigen

any substance (as a toxin or enzyme) that stimulates the production of antibodies

Adams suction apparatus

a device for suctioning fluids into a pipette to prevent accidental ingestion of the fluids. It has an airtight rubber gasket and a stainless steel barrel with a thumbscrew at the end to control the suction

Balanced Leukocytosis

an elevation in all types of white blood cells, usually due to hemoconcentration

Hemacytometer

instrument used for red blood cell count

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